Also known as: Zambales Negritos

A negrito people living in the Zambales mountains of Luzon

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Traditional Culture(1878-1903)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 65-67
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 48, 65

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 65

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 63-64

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 65

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 33-37
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 36-37
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 36-38
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 36-37
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 33-37
Social Environment +
Population 6000 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 30-32
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 30-31, 70
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 60

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 70
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 68-71
Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 63
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 44
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. Plate II
Distance to nearest continent 902.0 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. Plate II
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 39-48
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 44-48
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 40-41
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 44-48
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 41, 42

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 48
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 48
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 39-48

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 43-44
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. 43-44
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. Plate II

Location

Latitude 15.3 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. Plate II
Longitude 120.4 (Source)
Reed (1904), pp. Plate II
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Brosius, J. P. (1983). The Zambales Negritos: Swidden agriculture and environmental change. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 11(2/3), 123-148.

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Reed, W.A. (1904). Negritos of Zambales. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Public Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/negritoszambale01reedgoog/mode/1up