Also known as: Tana Wai Brama

The 'Ata Tana 'Ai are a branch of the Sikkanese people of Flores in Indonesia. Unlike the majority of Sikkanese, who have been Catholic for centuries, the 'Ata Tana 'Ai retained their indigenous religion into the twenty-first century.

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Traditional Culture(1977)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 257, 258, 271
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 258
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 89

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 265

Afterlife and Creation

The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 257
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 48
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 45

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 271

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 24, 26
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 189, 265

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 285
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 18-19
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 16-17

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 259-261
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Lewis (1988)
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 259-261
Social Environment +
Population 6000 (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 23
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 126, 188
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 126, 188
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 24
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 24

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 25
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 25
(No) internal warfare Rare or never (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 25
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 11
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 7-9
Distance to nearest continent 693.0 (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 34
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 298
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 298
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 27, 144
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 27
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 27, 144
Land-based gathering Minor (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 27
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 27, 144

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 27
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 27
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 27

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 10, 27
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 9

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Island Size (km²) 13500.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Maximum elevation (meters) 2400.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438

Location

Latitude -8.6 (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 34
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 122.6 (Source)
Lewis (1988), pp. 34
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1977-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 23
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 23
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Lewis (1993), pp. 24
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lewis, E. D. (1988). People of the Source: The social and ceremonial order of Tana Wai Brama on Flores. Leiden: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde

Lewis, E.D. (1993). "Ata Tana 'Ai". In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume V: East and Southeast Asia). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & CO.

Lewis, E.D. (2006). From Domains to Rajadom: Notes on the History of Territorial Categories and Institutions in the Rajadom of Sikka. In T. Reuter (Ed.), Sharing the Earth, Dividing the Land: Land and Territory in the Austronesian World. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Morwood, M. J., Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E. W., Jatmiko, Hobbs, D. R., & Westaway, K. E. (2009). Preface: Research at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Journal of Human Evolution, 57(5), 437-449. DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.07.003