Also known as: Land Dayaks

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 12-14
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 168-204
Geddes (1961)
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 34-35
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 34-35
Geddes (1954), pp. 26-27
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 168-204, 168-171
Geddes (1954), pp. 25-27

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 15

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 171-172
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 163-164
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 170-171
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 166-204, 202-204

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 25

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Geddes (1954), pp. 83-84

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 50-53
St. John (1862), pp. 186, 193-194
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 163-164, 193
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Geddes (1954), pp. 27-28
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 166-204, 201-202
Geddes (1954), pp. xii-xiv, 1-76

Rites

Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 140-141
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 160-165
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 140-141
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 140-141
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 160-165
Social Environment +
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195-196
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 195
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
St. John (1974), pp. 162

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Geddes (1961), pp. 4, 53
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 52-53
Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Geddes (1954), pp. 48
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 3
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 612.4 (Source)
Adelaar (1995B), pp. 82
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
St. John (1862), pp. 169
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Geddes (1961), pp. 19
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
St. John (1862), pp. 37
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
St. John (1862), pp. 37
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
St. John (1862), pp. 202
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Metalworking Present (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Geddes (1961), pp. 3

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 0.2 (Source)
Adelaar (1995B), pp. 82
Geddes (1961), pp. xiii
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 110.5 (Source)
Adelaar (1995B), pp. 82
Geddes (1961), pp. xiii
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf) (2014)
Island Size (kmĀ²) 755000.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 4101.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 334-336
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Chua (2012), pp. 515
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 335

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 334-336
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Chua (2009), pp. 334-335
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 334-335

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 334-335
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Chua (2009), pp. 334

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Chua (2009), pp. 334
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kuching) (2014)
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 162
Chua (2009), pp. 334

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 195
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Chua (2012), pp. 513
External Links
References
Adelaar, K.A. (1995B). "Borneo as a Cross-Roads for Comparative Austronesian Linguistics". In Bellwood, P., Fox, J.J. & Tryon, D., The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. (pp. 81-102). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Chua, L. (2009). To Know or Not to Know? Practices of Knowledge and Ignorance among Bidayuhs in an 'Impurely' Christian World. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 15 (2), 332-348. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9655.2009.01556

Chua, L. (2012). Conversion, Continuity, and Moral Dilemmas Among Christian Bidayuhs in Malaysian Borneo. American Ethnologist, 39 (3), 511-526. DOI: 10.1111/j.1548-1425.2012.01378

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Emerson, R. (1946). Education in the Netherlands East Indies. The Journal of Negro Education, 15(3), 494-507.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2014). "Kuching". Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/324300/Kuching

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/74286/Borneo

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573755/Sunda-Shelf

Geddes, W. R. 1954. The Land Dayaks of Sarawak. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Geddes, W.R. (1961). Nine Dayak Nights. London: Oxford University Press.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

St. John, S. (1974). Life in the Forests of the Far East. Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. (First published in 1862 in two volumes by Smith, Elder and Co., London).

St. John, S. 1862. Life in the forests of the Far East. Kuala Lumpur. NY: Oxford University Press.