Also known as: Bontoc Igorot

The Bontok (also known as the Bontoc Igorots) live in the area surrounding the community of Bontoc in the mountains of Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines. Historically, the Bontok have lived in large villages (often called towns or pueblos) and have cultivated rice using a sophisticated system of terraces.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Reid (1972), pp. 532-535
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 196-215, 216-217
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 85
Jenks (1905), pp. 196-198
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 198
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 201-204, 210

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 198

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 198
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 209, 215
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 216-217
Bacwaden (1997), pp. 333
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 216-217
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 201-204
Bacwaden (1997), pp. 340-342

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 216

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Absent (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 48-79, 196-214
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 81-166, 196-214
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 48-79, 196-214

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 175
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Reid (1972), pp. 548
Jenks (1905), pp. 196-215
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 207-215
Keesing (1949)
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 205-206

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 184-185, 187
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 63-64
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 184-189
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 187-189
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 184-189
Social Environment +
Population 30000 (Source)
Keesing (1949), pp. 578-579
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 83, 84-85
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 84, 85
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 84
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 84

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 167-171
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 85
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Keesing (1949), pp. 579
Jenks (1905), pp. 175
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 35-6, 154, 157-158
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 806.2 (Source)
Bodner & Gereau (1988), pp. 308
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Jenks (1905), pp. 35-39
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 35
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 107-111, 140
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 84-85
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 81, 143
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 81-83
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 88-89

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 85-86, 141
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 85-86
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 87, 141-142

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 136-137, 154-156
Metalworking Present (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 116-117, 125-128
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Bodner & Gereau (1988), pp. 308

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 17.0 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Bodner & Gereau (1988), pp. 308
Longitude 121.0 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Bodner & Gereau (1988), pp. 308
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213, 217
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
McKay (2006), pp. 296
Keesing (1949), pp. 579
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Howell (2009), pp. 253-254
McKay (2006), pp. 296
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
McKay (2006), pp. 296

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Howell (2009)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Carling (2004), pp. 186-187
Immigration Absent (Source)
Carling (2004), pp. 184
Google Maps (2014)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ethnologue (Bontok, Central) (2014)
Ethnologue (Bontok, Eastern) (2014)
Ethnologue (Bontok, Northern) (2014)
Ethnologue (Bontok, Southern) (2014)
Ethnologue (Bontok, Southwestern) (2014)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Reid (2005), pp. 6-

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Prill-Brett (2004), pp. 6
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Prill-Brett (2004), pp. 6

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Prill-Brett (2004), pp. 5
Carling (2004), pp. 186-187
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Jenks (1905), pp. 35-39
Prill-Brett (2004), pp. 5-6
Carling (2004), pp. 186-187
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Institutional religious syncretism Low (Source)
Howell (2009), pp. 255, 265
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Howell (2009), pp. 254
External Links
References
Bacwaden, J. C. O. (1997). Lumawig: The Culture Hero of the Bontoc-Igorot. Philippine Studies, 45 (3), 359-352. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42635050

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Bodner, C. C. & Gereau, R. E. (1988). A Contribution to Bontoc Ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 42 (3), 307-369. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4255087

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Carling, J. (2004). The Cordillera Peoples and the Movement for Regional Autonomy. In V. Tauli-Corpuz, & J. Carino (Eds.), Reclaiming Balance: Indigenous Peoples, Conflict Resolution and Sustainable Development (pp 183-195). Baguio City, Philippines: Tebtebba Foundation.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/352414/Luzon

Ethnologue (2014). Bontok, Central: A language of Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/lbk

Ethnologue (2014). Bontok, Eastern: A language of Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/ebk

Ethnologue (2014). Bontok, Northern: A language of Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/rbk

Ethnologue (2014). Bontok, Southern: A language of Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/obk

Ethnologue (2014). Bontok, Southwestern: A language of the Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/vbk

Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines). (2014). Map of Northern Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_n

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Howell, B. M. (2009). Moving Mountains: Protestant Christianity and the Spiritual Landscape of Northern Luzon. Anthropological Forum, 19 (3), 253-269. DOI: 10.1080/00664670903278395

Jenks, A. E. (1905). The Bontoc Igorot. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/bontocigorot01jenkgoog#page/n8/mode/2up

Keesing, F. M. (1949). Some Notes on Bontok Social Organization, Northern Philippines. American Anthropologist, 51 (4), 578-601. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/665014

Keesing, F.M. & Keesing, M. (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. London, England: George Allen and Unwin.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

McKay, D. (2006). Rethinking Indigenous Place: Igorot Identity and Locality in the Philippines. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 17 (3), 291-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1835-9310.2006.tb00065.x

Northern Philippines [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_n

Prill-Brett, J. (2004). Gender Relations and Gender Issues on Resource Management in the Central Cordillera, Northern Philippines. Review of Women's Studies, 14 (1), 1-29. Retrieved from http://www.journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/rws/article/view/2919

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Reid, L. (2005). A Cross-Generational View of Contact-Related Phenomena in a Philippine Language: Phonology. In Quakenbush, J.S. & Dayag, D.T. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Education in the Philippines and Beyond: Festschrift in Honor of Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and the Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Reid, L. A. (1972). Wards and Working Groups in Guinaang, Bontok, Luzon. Anthropos, 67 (3-4), 530-563. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40459488