Also known as: Binokid; Binukid; Higaonan; Higaunen

'Bukidnon' was originally an exonym meaning 'mountain people' in Cebuano, but it was subsequently adopted by one of the mountain peoples of Mindanao to refer to themselves. Until the late nineteenth century, when they were converted to Christianity, the Bukidnon worshipped a range of supernaturals including ancestral spirits, nature spirits, and a high god.

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1880)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-98
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-98
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 91-92
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-98
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-117

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 92

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 92
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 92
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 127
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-98, 126-132
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-98, 126-132

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 97

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89-90
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45-67, 89-117
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 71

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 84
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 76, 89-98
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 99-117
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 79-80, 89-117

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 33, 72
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 72
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 26, 72
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 29
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 68, 72
Social Environment +
Population 13,000 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 14
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 75
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54

Conflict

(No) external warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 82
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 79-88
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52, 54
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Distance to nearest continent 1731.0 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Cole (1956), pp. 126
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Cullon (1968), pp. 18
Cole (1956), pp. 126
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 51, 56
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45-48, 51, 56
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45, 56
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45-48, 51, 56
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45, 56

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45, 48-51, 56
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45, 48-51, 56
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45, 56

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45
Metalworking Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Yumul et al. (2009), pp. 732-733
Island Size (km²) 94630.0 (Source)
'Mindanao' (2016)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2954.0 (Source)
'Mindanao' (2016)

Location

Latitude 8.2 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 125.0 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1880-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 14
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54-55
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52
Cole (1956), pp. 8
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52-53, 54
Immigration High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Lebar (1975), pp. 39
Language shift High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Cairns (1997), pp. 41

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 16
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52-53, 54

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Cairns (1997), pp. 40-41
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cairns, M. (1997). Ancestral Domain and National Park Protection: Mutually Supportive Paradigms? A Case Study of the Mt. Kitanglad Range National Park, Bukidnon, Philippines. Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society, 24, 31-82. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792212

Cole, F. C. (1956). The Bukidnon of Mindanao. Chicago, IL: Chicago Natural History Museum

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Cullon, V. G. (1968). The spirit world of the Bukidnon. Asian Folklore Studies, 27(2), 17-25.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Edgerton, R. K. (1993). Bukidnon. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Volume 5, East and Southeast Asia) (pp. 52-55). NY: G. K. Hall & Company.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lao, M. M. (1987). The economy of the Bukidnon plateau during the American period. Philippine Studies, 35(3), 316-331

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Mindanao (2016). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Mindanao.

Yumul, G., Dimalanta, C., Queaño, K., & Marquez, E. (2009). Philippines, geology. In R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands (pp. 732-738). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.