Also known as: Binokid; Binukid; Higaonan; Higaunen

"Bukidnon" is an exonym meaning "mountain people" in Bisayan, but it has subsequently been adopted by the Bukidnon people to refer to themselves. The Bukidnon live in the mountains in the interior of Mindanao. Until the late nineteenth century, when they were converted to Christianity, Bukidnon religion was based on a range of supernaturals, including ancestral spirits, nature spirits, and a high god.

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1855-1880)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89, 93-98
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 93-94, 96-97
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 91-92
Deified ancestor(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 91-117, 95
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 89, 94-98, 99, 100, 106, 108

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 40
Cullon (1968), pp. 20

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 92
Lynch (1967), pp. 481-482
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Lynch (1967), pp. 481
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 91-117, 95, 126-132

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 40

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45-67, 89-117

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 84
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 99-117
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 99-117
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 79, 89

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 26, 72
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 68, 72
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 72
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 29
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 33
Social Environment +
Population 20000 (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Cole (1956), pp. 18
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 75
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54
Cole (1956), pp. 82
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52, 54
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1728.7 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Cole (1956), pp. 126
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Cullon (1968), pp. 18
Cole (1956), pp. 126
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 56
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 46-48
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 56
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Cole (1956), pp. 55, 56

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 48-51, 56
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 48-51, 56
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 51, 56

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45-67
Metalworking Present (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 45
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 8.2 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 125.0 (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213
Island Size (kmĀ²) 94630.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao) (2015)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2954.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao) (2015)
Post Contact History(1880-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 14
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52
Cole (1956), pp. 8
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 54-55
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52-53, 54
Immigration High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Lebar (1975), pp. 39
Language shift High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Cairns (1997), pp. 41

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Cole (1956), pp. 16
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 52-53, 54

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Edgerton (1993), pp. 53
Cairns (1997), pp. 40-41
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cairns, M. (1997). Ancestral Domain and National Park Protection: Mutually Supportive Paradigms? A Case Study of the Mt. Kitanglad Range National Park, Bukidnon, Philippines. Philippine Quarterly of Culture & Society, 24, 31-82. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792212

Cole, F. C. (1956). The Bukidnon of Mindanao. Chicago, IL: Chicago Natural History Museum

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Cullon, V. G. (1968). The spirit world of the Bukidnon. Asian Folklore Studies, 27(2), 17-25.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Edgerton, R. K. (1993). Bukidnon. In D. Levinson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume 5, East and Southeast Asia (pp. 52-55). NY: G. K. Hall & Company.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao). (2015). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/383601/Mindanao

Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines). (2014). Map of Southern Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_s

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lynch, F. (1967). The Bukidnon of north-central Mindanao in 1889. Philippine Studies, 15(3), 464-482

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9