Also known as: Agta; Dumagat

The Casiguran Dumagat are one of the many 'Negrito' groups of the Philippines. Negritos, literally 'little blacks', share a distinctive phenotype that differs from that of the majority of other Filipinos. The Casiguran Dumagat are one of the Negrito groups often known as 'Agta'.

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1936)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1936)

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana linked to genealogy Present, linked to both paternal and maternal lines (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana and social status Unrelated (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Largest religious community Household or smaller (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1975)

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Social Environment +
Population 1600 (Source)
Headland (1975)
Headland & Headland (1997)
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Headland (1993), pp. 6
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Headland (1993), pp. 5
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Headland (1993), pp. 5
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Headland (1993), pp. 5
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Headland (1975)

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
(No) internal warfare Rare or never (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Headland (1975)
Distance to nearest continent 930.0 (Source)
Headland (1975)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Headland (1975)
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Agriculture / Horticulture Minor (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Principal (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1937)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Headland (1975)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Yumul et al. (2009), pp. 732-733
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)

Location

Latitude 16.3 (Source)
Headland (1975)
Longitude 122.0 (Source)
Headland (1975)
Post Contact History(1936-2014)Expand All +
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
Immigration High (Source)
Headland (1993), pp. 4

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Headland (1993), pp. 5

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Vanoverbergh (1938)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Headland, T. N. (1993). Agta. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. V: East and Southeast Asia, pp. 4-6). New York, NY: G. K. Hall & Co.

Headland, T. N., & Headland, J. D. (1997). Limitation of human rights, land exclusion, and tribal extinction: the Agta Negritos of the Philippines. Human Organization, 56(1):79-90.

Headland, T.N. (1975). The Casiguran Dumagats Today and in 1936. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 3 (4), 245-257.

Heatwole, H. (1975). Biogeography of reptiles on some of the islands and cays of Eastern Papua-New Guinea. Atoll Research Bulletin, 180.

Luzon (2019). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved https://www.britannica.com/place/Luzon

Vanoverbergh, M. (1936). The Isneg Life Cycle - Part I. Publications of the Catholic Anthropological Conference, 3 (2), 81-186.

Vanoverbergh, M. (1937). Negritos of Eastern Luzon. Anthropos, 32 (5-6), 905-928. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40448135

Vanoverbergh, M. (1938A). Negritos of Eastern Luzon (Continuation). Anthropos, 33 (1-2), 119-164. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41103157

Yumul, G., Dimalanta, C., Queaño, K., & Marquez, E. (2009). Philippines, geology. In R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands (pp. 732-738). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.