Also known as: Maringe

The Cheke Holo people inhabit the central portion of the island of Santa Isabel in the Solomon Islands. In pre-Christian times, they built megalithic shrines in honour of deceased chiefs. Between 1860 and 1899, they suffered greatly at the hands of raiders and headhunters, both from other parts of Santa Isabel and from other islands further to the west. As a result, most either fled to remote inland areas of the island or to Bughotu in the far south, where they came into contact with Anglican missionaries. Most converted to Christianity in the early twentieth century.

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Traditional Culture(1865-1890)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
White (1991), pp. 30-51, 43, 108-109
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
White (1991), pp. 30-51
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
White (1991), pp. 30-51, 36-38, 54-55, 110, 249
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
White (1991), pp. 30-51, 36-38, 54-55, 110, 249
God(s) Absent (Source)
White (1991), pp. 30-51

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
White (1991), pp. 38, 54-55

Afterlife and Creation

The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
White (1991), pp. 249

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
White (1991), pp. 38

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
White (1991), pp. 54-55
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
White (1991), pp. 38, 60

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
White (1991), pp. 37-38
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
White (1991), pp. 37-38
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
White (1991), pp. 249
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
White (1991)
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
White (1991), pp. 54-55, 58-59
Social Environment +
Population 2000 (Source)
White (1991)
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
White (1991), pp. 33
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
White (1991), pp. 33

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
White (1991), pp. 82-83, 89
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
White (1991), pp. 89
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
White (1991), pp. 83-84
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
White (1991), pp. 23
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 5702.8 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
White (1991), pp. 22
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
White (1991), pp. 82-84, 93-94
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21-23
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21-23

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21, 23, 89
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21, 23, 89
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21, 23, 89

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
White (1991), pp. 21-23, 33, 40
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
White (1991), pp. 22-23

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -8.2 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
White (1991), pp. 22
Longitude 159.6 (Source)
White (1991), pp. 22
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Solomon Islands) (2014)
Island Size (kmĀ²) 3700.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 1219.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Isabel) (2014)
Post Contact History(1890-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
White (1991), pp. 95
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
White (1991), pp. 81-130
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
White (1991), pp. 81-130, 93
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
White (1991), pp. 95, 136

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, but did not survive to the present-day (Source)
White (1991), pp. 81-130
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
White (1991), pp. 183-208
Immigration Absent (Source)
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009), pp. 35
Language shift Medium (Source)
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009), pp. 32
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009), pp. 28, 30

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009), pp. 39
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
White (1991), pp. 35, 254
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Isabel) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
White (1991), pp. 183-208
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
White (1991), pp. 183-208
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Solomon Islands Census (Isabel Profile) (2009)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brookfield, H. C., & Hart, D. (1971). Melanesia: a geographical interpretation of an island world. London: Methuen.

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Isabel). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/522907/Santa-Isabel

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Solomon Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/553556/Solomon-Islands

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Solomon Islands Government. (2009). Provincial Profile of the 2009 Population & Housing Census: Isabel. Retrieved from: http://www.spc.int/prism/solomons/index.php/sinso-documents?view=download&fileId=67

White, G. M. (1991). Identity Through History: Living Stories in a Solomon Islands Society. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.