Also known as: Choiseulese; Lauru; Rauru

Choiseul (Lauru) is a large island in the western Solomons. The people of Choiseul speak closely related languages and have a high degree of cultural homogeneity. Choiseul has been noted for its social structure, which is based on cognatic (non-unilineal) descent groups called sinangge.

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Traditional Culture(1885-1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 240-253, 246-247
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-245
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 246-248
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 246-248, 250-251
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-245

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-243

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 247-248
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 247
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9, 240-253
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 240-253, 241

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 251

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 78, 82
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 4-5, 240-253
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 183-184

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-243
Mana linked to genealogy Present, linked to both paternal and maternal lines (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 179-180, 250-251
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana and social status Moderately associated (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-243, 250-251
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 242-243
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 252-253
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 244-245, 252
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 39
Scheffler (1965), pp. 240-253, 244, 250-251
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 240-253, 244, 246, 251
Social Environment +
Population 9000 (Source)
Scheffler (1964B), pp. 398
Scheffler (1965), pp. 6
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 85, 118
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Scheffler (1963), pp. 180-181
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 39
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 39

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 220
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 39
Scheffler (1964A), pp. 790
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 39
Scheffler (1964A), pp. 790
Scheffler (1965), pp. 89-91
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Scheffler (1965)
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 40.0 (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 5340.5 (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1, 7-8
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 14-24
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 38
Scheffler (1965), pp. 5
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 38
Scheffler (1965), pp. 4-5
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 38
Scheffler (1965), pp. 4-5
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Scheffler (1991), pp. 38
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9-11

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 5
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 5
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 9-14
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1-3

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -7.0 (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 157.0 (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 213
Island Size (km²) 3086.0 (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 215
Maximum elevation (meters) 1060.0 (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 213
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Mixed / Neither (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 44
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
McDonald (2009)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
McDonald (2009), pp. 45
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
McDonald (2009), pp. 44

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 1-38
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, but of low importance (Source)
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 12
Immigration Absent (Source)
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 11
Rowling et al (1995), pp. 618
Language shift Low (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 220
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 11
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Dorovolomo (2009), pp. 35

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 30
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 233
Lipsett-Moore et al (2010), pp. 6

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Lipsett-Moore et al (2010), pp. 6
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 31
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
McLatchey et al (2005), pp. 224
Sea port Absent (Source)
Lipsett-Moore et al (2010), pp. 6

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Scheffler (1965), pp. 19-20
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Scheffler (1964B), pp. 399
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 12
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Mataki et al (2013), pp. 11-12
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Churchill, W. (1916). Sissano: Movements of Migration Within and Through Melanesia. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institute of Washington.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Doromolovo, J. (2009). Rural Education Matters: Access to Opportunities to Learn in Physical Education and School Sports in Rural Solomon Islands Schools. In Cuddihy, T.F. & Brymer, E. (Eds.) Creating Active Futures: Edited Proceedings of the 26th ACHPER International Conference. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Solomon Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/553556/Solomon-Islands

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lipsett-Moore, G., Hamilton, R., Peterson, N., Game, E., Atu, W., Kereseka, J., ... & Siota, C. (2010). Ridges to Reefs Conservation Plan for Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. Brisbane: The Nature Conservancy.

Mataki, M., Solo, G., Donohoe, P., Alele, D. & Sikajajaka, L. (2013). Choiseul Province Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Report. Suva: Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

McDonald, L. (2009). Choiseul and the Missionaries (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Albany, N.Z.: Massey University.

McLatchey, W.C., Sirikolo, M.Q., Boe, H., Biliki, E. & Votboc, F. (2005). A Proposed PABITRA Study on Lauru Island, Western Solomon Islands. Pacific Science, 25 (2), 59 (2), 213-239.

Rowling, D., Hartley, D., Owen, J., & Strachan, J. (1995). Family Planning: Personal and Political Perspectives from Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. Australian Journal of Public Health, 19 (6), 616-622. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.1995.tb00467.x

Scheffler, H. W. (1963). Choiseul Island Descent Groups. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 72 (3), 177-187. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20704103

Scheffler, H. W. (1964). The Genesis and Repression of Conflict: Choiseul Island. American Anthropologist, 66 (1), 789-804. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/668176

Scheffler, H. W. (1964B). The Social Consequences of Peace on Choiseul Island. Ethnology, 3 (4), 398-403. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772842

Scheffler, H. W. (1965). Choiseul Island Social Structure. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Scheffler, H. W. (1991). 'Choiseul Island'. In Hays, T.E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania. NY: G.K. Hall and Company.