Also known as: Chuukese; Truukese; Trukese

Chuuk (also known as Truk) is a complex atoll consisting of a ring of coral islets surrounding a cluster of volcanic high islands. Prior to the adoption of Christianity in the early twentieth century, the Chuukese worshipped a wide array of supernatural agents, including the deified spirits of deceased chiefs and a pantheon of gods, including a remote high god.

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Traditional Culture(1855-1880)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 91-122
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 91-122, 156-320, 335
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 113, 134-156
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 113, 156-178
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 83-122, 172-173, 192-209

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 135

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living do not affect the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 91, 145-146
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 133-155
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 123-132
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 123-132
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 88, 91-122, 156-320,

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 86

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 249
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 298-299
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 298

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 72
Blust (2007), pp. 419
Mana linked to genealogy Present, linked to maternal lines only (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 30, 31, 72-73, 297
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana and social status Mana is associated with social status, but high social status is not necessary in order to be mana or have mana. (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 72-73
Blust (2007), pp. 419
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 72
Blust (2007), pp. 419
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 156-320
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 164-165
Bollig (1999), pp. 35-36
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 29-46, 38, 156-320
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Goodenough (1991), pp. 353
Goodenough (2002), pp. 290-320

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 343-344
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 336-362
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 361
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 360-361
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 336-362
Social Environment +
Population 12000 (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 18
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 18, 38
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 30
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 30
Kinship system Crow (Source)
Goodenough (1991), pp. 352
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Goodenough (1991), pp. 352

Conflict

Conflict within communities Endemic (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 273
Young (1979), pp. 148
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 38, 273
Younger (2009), pp. 148
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Younger (2009), pp. 148
Dietrich (2011), pp. 71
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Goodenough (1991), pp. 352
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 68.2 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Micronesia) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 3827.9 (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. xiv, 18
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Hezel (1973)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 107
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 20
Lebar (1999), pp. 192-193
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 20
Lebar (1999), pp. 132
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 117-226, 122, 123
Goodenough (2002), pp. 20-21
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 20
Lebar (1999), pp. 132
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Goodenough (1991), pp. 352
Goodenough (2002), pp. 20

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 19
Lebar (1999), pp. 138-191, 192-193
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 19
Lebar (1999), pp. 138-191, 192-193
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 192-193

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 26
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Lebar (N/A)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 17

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 7.4 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Goodenough & Skoggard (1999), pp. 1
Longitude 151.6 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Goodenough & Skoggard (1999), pp. 1
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Goodenough (2002), pp. 17
Buden et al (2005), pp. 97
Island Size (km²) 34.2 (Source)
Buden et al (2005), pp. 97
Maximum elevation (meters) 443.0 (Source)
Buden et al (2005), pp. 97
Post Contact History(1880-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Gladwin (1999), pp. 44
Dietrich (2011), pp. 71-72
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Gladwin (1999), pp. 44
Dietrich (2011), pp. 71-72
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Gladwin (1999), pp. 44
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 3, 58

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Dietrich (2011)
Gladwin (1999), pp. 44
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 5-6
Swartz (1999), pp. 21
Immigration Low (Source)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. xxv, 6-7
Young et al (1997), pp. 2, 6
Language shift Low (Source)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. xxv
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 68

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Young et al (1997), pp. 2
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Federated States of Micronesia) (2014)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 6, 76
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Young et al (1997), pp. 2, 49

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 125
Young et al (1997), pp. 52
Air travel Present and long-distance (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Federated States of Micronesia) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 178

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Swartz (1999), pp. 21-23
Young et al (1997), pp. 2-6
Federated States of Micronesia Government (2000), pp. 5-6
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Swartz (1999), pp. 21-23
Young et al (1997), pp. 1-6
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Federated States of Micronesia) (2014)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism High: (Source)
Dietrich (2011), pp. 62-64, 72
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Dietrich (2011), pp. 64-65
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Bollig, P. L. (1999). The Inhabitants of the Chuuk Islands: Religion, Life, and a Short Grammar of a Micronesian People. (First published 1927). Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OR19%27%29&docId=or19-022&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Buden, D.W., Sands, D.P. & Tennent, W.J. (2005). New Records of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) from the Eastern Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Pacific Science, 59 (1), 97-103. DOI: 10.1353/psc.2005.0003

CHUUK CENSUS - NEED PROPER REFERENCE

Chuuk. (2015) In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com/EBchecked/topic/117429/Chuuk-Islands

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dietrich, B. (2011). Voices from Under the Garland: Singing, Christianity and Cultural Transformations in Chuuk, Micronesia. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 43, 62-88. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5921/yeartradmusi.43.0062.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Federated States of Micronesia). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380474/Micronesia

Ethnologue (Map of Federated States of Micronesia). (2014). Papua New Guinea, Map 12. Ethnologue. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/map/FM

Gladwin, T. (1999). Truk: Man in Paradise. New Haven, CT: HRAF. (First published 1953). Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OR19%27%29&docId=or19-002&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Goodenough, W. H. & Skoggard, I. (1999). Culture Summary: Chuuk. Newhaven, CT: EHRAF. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OR19%27%29&docId=or19-000&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Goodenough, W. H. (2002). Under Heaven's Brow: Pre-Christian Religious Tradition in Chuuk. PA: American Philosophical Society.

Goodenough, W.H. (1991). "Truk". In Hays, T. (Ed), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania). New York: G.K. Hall & Co. (351-354).

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hezel, F. X. (1973). The Beginnings of Foreign Contact with Truk. The Journal of Pacific History, 8 (1), 51-73. DOI: 10.1080/00223347308572223

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

LeBar, F. M. (N/A). Material Culture Of Truk. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/document?id=or19-003

Lebar, F. (1999). The Material Culture of Truk. New Haven, CA: EHRAF. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OR19%27%29&docId=or19-003&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP. (Originally published 1948)

Marshall M. & Marshall L. (1990). Silent voices speak: women and prohibition in Truk. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Swartz, M. (1999). Personality and Structure: Political Aquiescence in Truk. New Haven, CT: EHRAF. (First published 1965). Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OR19%27%29&docId=or19-040&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Young, J. A., Rosenberger, N. R., & Harding, J. R. (1997). Truk Ethnography. San Francisco, CA: U.S. Park Service.

Young, M. W. (1979). The Ethnography of Malinowski. London, U.K.: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Younger, S. M. (2009). Violence and Warfare in the Pre-Contact Caroline Islands. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 118 (2), 135-164. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20707479