Also known as: Kadazan; Kadazan-Dusun

'Dusun' is derived from 'orang dusun' ('people of the orchards'), an exonym for a group of related peoples in Sabah in Northern Borneo.

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Traditional Culture(1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 21-37, 23, 35-36, 209
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 17-37, 70-79
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37, 19, 25

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 145

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 70-76
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Evans (1953)
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 16
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically distinct from humans (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-20
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37, 393-398, 413-413

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 145

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 287-289
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 107, 124

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 263
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (1996)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 263
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 294
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 108-109, 282-287
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 209
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82
Evans (1953), pp. 7

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 101
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. Plates II-XXII
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 4, 87-133
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 298
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 490-491
Social Environment +
Population 80000 (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 124
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81, 82
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 66-67
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Conflict within community Moderate (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82-83
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 83
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 79
Distance to nearest continent 978.0 (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. map
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Williams (1965), pp. 68

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 199
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 76-77
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 79
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
'Sunda Shelf' (2016)
Island Size (km²) 755000.0 (Source)
'Borneo' (2019)
Maximum elevation (meters) 4101.0 (Source)
'Borneo' (2019)

Location

Latitude 5.7 (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. (map)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 116.4 (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. (map)
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80, 82
Immigration High (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 122
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ting & Tham (2014), pp. 44
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Ting & Tham (2014), pp. 44

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
'Kadazan' (2008)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
'Kadazan' (2008)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
'Sabah' (2013)
Sea port Present (Source)
'Sabah' (2013)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Evans (1953), pp. 8-9
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
'Kadazan' (2008)
External Links
References
Appell, G.N. & Harrison, R. (1969). The Ethnographic Classification of the Dusun-Speaking Peoples of Northern Borneo. Ethnology, 8 (2), 212-227. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772983

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (1996). Beyond the Austronesian Homeland: The Austric Hypothesis and its Implications for Archaeology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 117-158. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006623.

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Borneo (2019). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Borneo-island-Pacific-Ocean

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Evans, I. H. N. (1953). The Religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Kadazan (2008). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kadazan-people

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Phelan, R. (1983). The Form of Priesthood in the Kadazan (Dusun) System of Religion. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 115, 55-73. DOI: 10.1017/S0035869X00159921

Reid, A. (1997). Endangered Identity: Kadazan or Dusun in Sabah (East Malaysia). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 28 (1), 120-136. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20071905

Sabah (2013). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Sabah-state-Malaysia.

Sunda Shelf (2016). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Sunda-Shelf.

Ting, S. & Tham, F. (2014). Vitality of Kadazandusun Language in Sabah, Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Studies, 1 (1), 44-57. Retrieved from http://www.dcthink.org/index.php/aps/article/view/0138

Williams, T. R. (1965). The Dusun: A North Borneo Society. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Williams, T. R. (1993). Dusun. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (pp 79-84). NY: G.K. Halll & Co.