Also known as: Bundu Dusun; Tempasuk

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Traditional Culture(1885-1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 21-37, 23, 35-36, 209
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 17-37, 70-79
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37, 19, 25

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 145

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 70-76
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Evans (1953)
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 16
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically distinct from humans (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-20
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 15-37, 393-398, 413-413

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 145

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 107, 124
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 287-289

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 263
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (1996)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 263
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 294
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 108-109, 282-287
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 209
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82
Evans (1953), pp. 7

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 4, 87-133
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 490-491
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. Plates II-XXII
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 298
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 87-133, 101
Social Environment +
Population 80000 (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 124
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81, 82
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Hockings (1993C), pp. 81
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Hockings (1993C), pp. 82
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Hockings (1993C), pp. 82

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 66-67
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 83
Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 82-83
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 79
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 983.2 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sabah) (2014), pp. 79
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Williams (1965), pp. 68

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Evans (1953), pp. 199
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 75

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Williams (1965), pp. 76-77
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 81
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 79
Appell & Harrison (1969), pp. 213

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 5.7 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sabah) (2014)
Williams (1965), pp. (map)
Longitude 116.4 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sabah) (2014), pp. 79
Williams (1965), pp. (map)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 755000.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 4101.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo) (2014)
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 125
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80, 82
Immigration High (Source)
Reid (1997), pp. 122
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ting & Tham (2014), pp. 44
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Ting & Tham (2014), pp. 44

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kadazan) (2014)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kadazan) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sabah) (2014)
Sea port Present (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sabah) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Evans (1953), pp. 8-9
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Williams (1993), pp. 80
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kadazan) (2014)
External Links
References
Appell, G.N. & Harrison, R. (1969). The Ethnographic Classification of the Dusun-Speaking Peoples of Northern Borneo. Ethnology, 8 (2), 212-227. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3772983

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (1996). Beyond the Austronesian Homeland: The Austric Hypothesis and its Implications for Archaeology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 117-158. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006623.

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2014). "Kadazan". Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/174500/Kadazan

Encyclopaedia Britannica (2014). "Sabah". Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/514907/Sabah

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Borneo). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/74286/Borneo

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573755/Sunda-Shelf

Evans, I. H. N. (1953). The Religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evans, I.H.N. (1912). "Notes on the Religious Beliefs, Superstitions, Ceremonies and Tabus of the Dusuns of the Tuaran and Tempassuk Districts, British North Borneo." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 42, 380-396. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2843194

Hockings, P. (1993C). "Dusun". In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (79-84). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Phelan, R. (1983). The Form of Priesthood in the Kadazan (Dusun) System of Religion. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 115, 55-73. DOI: 10.1017/S0035869X00159921

Reid, A. (1997). Endangered Identity: Kadazan or Dusun in Sabah (East Malaysia). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 28 (1), 120-136. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20071905

SIL International (2014). "Malaysia - Sabah" (Map). Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/MY_sb

Ting, S. & Tham, F. (2014). Vitality of Kadazandusun Language in Sabah, Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Studies, 1 (1), 44-57. Retrieved from http://www.dcthink.org/index.php/aps/article/view/0138

Williams, T. R. (1965). The Dusun: A North Borneo Society. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Williams, T. R. (1993). Dusun. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (pp 79-84). NY: G.K. Halll & Co.