Also known as: Pamona; Pomona

Eastern Toraja is the name given to the Bare'e (also known as Pamona) speakers living in the interior of Sulawesi in Eastern Indonesia. Prior to their conversion to Christianity, the Eastern Toraja worshipped a pantheon of beings, including a high god who was believed to have created human beings. Like many Indonesian peoples, the Eastern Toraja drew an important distinction between the upper world and the underworld, which were inhabited by the remote deities Laki and Ndara respectively.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 21-22
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 12, 23
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 28-31
Adriani & Kruyt (1951A), pp. 3, 102
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 32
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 9-16, 13-25, 92-100
Adriani & Kruyt (1951A), pp. 102

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 20

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-76
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951A), pp. 659-660, 685, 709, 808
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 15-16
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically distinct from humans (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 12-16
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 24-39
Downs (1956)

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 10, 10-11

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 100-101
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 4

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blust (2007), pp. 408
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana linked to genealogy Present, linked to both paternal and maternal lines (Source)
Blust (2007), pp. 408
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Lebar (1972), pp. 132
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana and social status Mana is associated with social status, but high social status is not necessary in order to be mana or have mana. (Source)
Blust (2007), pp. 408
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Blust (2007), pp. 408
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 58, 64
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 90, 93, 101-102
Adriani & Kruyt (1951A), pp. 81, 402-405, 407-409
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 3, 4
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 47-48, 54

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 77
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-76
Scarification Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-77
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 449
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 413-452
Tooth pulling Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 77
Social Environment +
Population 30000 (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 5
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 77, 81, 114
Downs (1956), pp. 3-4
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Beierle & Malone (1997), pp. 4-5
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Beierle & Malone (1997), pp. 4-5
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 132-133
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 133
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 133

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 153-155
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Beierle (2002), pp. 6
Downs (1956), pp. 3-4
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 350, 357
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 354, 357
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Beierle (2002), pp. 2
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sulawesi) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1839.6 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Downs (1956), pp. 15-16
Islamic influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Beierle (2002), pp. 2
Downs (1956), pp. 22
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Beierle (2002), pp. 2
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 8
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 526-565
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 8
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 317
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 526-565
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 8

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 574&581/659
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 566-582
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 580

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 508-509
Metalworking Present (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 491-492
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sulawesi) (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -1.7 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sulawesi) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.8 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sulawesi) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Charlton (2000), pp. 607
Island Size (km²) 188522.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 3455.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2000)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 13
Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 12-13
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 7, 20
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 20

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Cote (2011)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 171-246
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 11
Language shift High (Source)
Ethnologue (Pamona) (2014)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 113
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 110-112

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 227
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 166

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 12-13
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 227
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 11
Current Culture(2000)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 176, 184, 185
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 84
External Links
References
Adriana, N., & Kruyt, A. C. (1950). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja): First Volume. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-002&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP.

Adriani, N., & Kruyt, A.C. (1951). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja): Second volume. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-003&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Adriani, N., & Kruyt, A.C. (1951). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja): Third Volume. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-004&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Beierle, J. & Malone, M. J. (1997). Culture summary: Eastern Toraja. New Haven, CT: HRAF.

Beierle, J. (2002). Eastern Toraja. In Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved from: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3458100036.html

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Charlton, T. R. (2000). Tertiary Evolution of the Eastern Indonesia Collision Complex. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18 (5), 603-631. DOI: 10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00049-8

Cote, J. (2011). Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and 'Multiculturality'. BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review, 126(2), 1-27

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Downs, R. E. (1956). The religion of the Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-001&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101218/Celebes

Ethnologue (2014). Map of Indonesia, Sulawesi. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/ID_sl_

Ethnologue (2014). Pamona: A language of Indonesia. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/pmf

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Schrauwers, A. (2000). Colonial 'reformation' in the highlands of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1892-1995. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press