Also known as: Pamona; Pomona

Eastern Toraja is the name given to the Bare'e (also known as Pamona) -speakers living in the interior of Sulawesi in Eastern Indonesia. Prior to their conversion to Christianity, the Eastern Toraja worshipped a pantheon of beings, including a high god who was believed to have created human beings using bellows.

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Traditional Culture(1892)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 21-22
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 12, 23
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 28-32
Adriani & Kruyt (1951A), pp. 3, 102-103
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 32
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 12-27

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 20

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-76
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 83
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 15-16
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 9-27
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 9-32

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 10, 10-11

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 4
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 100-101

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana and social status Moderately associated (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 64
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 90, 93, 101-102
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 3, 4
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 47-54

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-77
Scarification Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-77
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 77
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 413-452
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 75-76
Social Environment +
Population 40,000 (Source)
Henley (2005), pp. 39, 222-231
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 114
Downs (1956), pp. 3-4
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 132
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 132
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 132-133
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 133
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 5

Conflict

(No) external warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 354, 357
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 153-155
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1950), pp. 350-351, 357
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 4
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 1
Distance to nearest continent 1367.0 (Source)
Grimes & Grimes (1987), pp. 20
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Downs (1956), pp. 15-16
Islamic influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 4, 22
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. vii-viii
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365, 526-565
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365, 526-565
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365, 566-582
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365, 566-582
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 283-365, 580

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 508
Metalworking Present (Source)
Adriani & Kruyt (1951B), pp. 491-492
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 1

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Charlton (2000), pp. 607
Island Size (km²) 188522.0 (Source)
'Celebes' (2018)
Maximum elevation (meters) 3455.0 (Source)
'Celebes' (2018)

Location

Latitude -1.9 (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.6 (Source)
Downs (1956), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1892-2000)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 13
Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 12-13
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 20
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 7, 20

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Cote (2011)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 171-246
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 11
Language shift Medium (Source)
Eberhard (2020)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 113
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 110-112

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 227
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 166

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 12-13
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 227
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Cote (2011), pp. 11
Current Culture(2000)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 176, 184, 185
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Schrauwers (2000), pp. 84
External Links
References
Adriani, N., & Kruyt, A. C. (1950). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja): First Volume. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-002&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP.

Adriani, N., & Kruyt, A.C. (1951). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja) (Third Volume). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-004&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Adriani, N., & Kruyt, A.C. (1951). The Bare'e-speaking Toradja of Central Celebes (the East Toradja): Second volume. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-003&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Celebes (2018). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Celebes

Charlton, T. R. (2000). Tertiary Evolution of the Eastern Indonesia Collision Complex. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18 (5), 603-631. DOI: 10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00049-8

Cote, J. (2011). Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and 'Multiculturality'. BMGN-Low Countries Historical Review, 126(2), 1-27

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Downs, R. E. (1956). The religion of the Bare'e-speaking Toradja of central Celebes. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OG11%27%29&docId=og11-001&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (23rd ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Grimes, C. E. & Grimes, B.D. (1987). Languages of South Sulawesi. Canberra, Australia: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies.

Henley, D. (2005). Fertility, food and fever: Population, economy and environment in North and Central Sulwesi, 1600-1930. Leiden, Netherlands: KITLV Press.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Schrauwers, A. (2000). Colonial 'reformation' in the highlands of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1892-1995. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press