Also known as: Fijian, I-Taukei

The indigenous people (I-Taukei) of the Fiji islands. The modern state of Fiji includes the Fiji Islands along with Rotuma. Rotumans are not included here.

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Traditional Culture(1815-1840)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 24-38
Hocart (1912)
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 24-38
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 40-41
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 400-401
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 24-57

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 42

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 38
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 38, 42-43
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 197
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 197
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Deane (1921), pp. 45-47

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 356

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 233
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 99
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Hale (1846), pp. 57
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 47, 311

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984), pp. 143
Tomlinson (2006), pp. 74-76
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Keesing (1984), pp. 143
Tomlinson (2006), pp. 74-75
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Williams (1858)
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 326
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 60-62
Deane (1921), pp. 63-64
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 60-62

Rites

Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 166-167
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 341
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 25-27
Wilkes (1845), pp. 373-376
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 375-376
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 106-107
Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 413
Social Environment +
Population 200,000 (Source)
McArthur (1967), pp. 2
Population of largest political community 10,000-99,999 (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 64, 341
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Marck (2008)
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Marck (2008)
Kinship system Iroquois (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 23
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 23
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 97

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 64, 82
Waterhouse (1866), pp. 14
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 82-86, 116, 181, 184
Williams (1858), pp. 43-59
Conflict within communities High (Source)
Hale (1846), pp. 60-61
Williams (1858), pp. 14
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 21-55
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 244.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7717.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 21-55
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370
Quain (1948), pp. 144
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370
Quain (1948), pp. 144, 149-150
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 352
Williams (1858), pp. 97-98
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370
Quain (1948), pp. 149-150
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 352, 355,

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370
Williams (1858), pp. 89-93
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370
Williams (1858), pp. 89-93
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 370

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Hale (1846), pp. 62
Williams (1858), pp. 93-94
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Williams (1858), pp. 60-101
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Wilkes (1845), pp. 337

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -18.0 (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 178.6 (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Evenhuis & Bickel (2005), pp. 5
Island Size (km²) 10429.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Viti Levu) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 1324.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Viti Levu) (2014)
Post Contact History(1840-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 36-55
Thornley (1979)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 36-55
Thornley (1979)
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 54
Thornley (1979)

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, but did not survive to the present-day (Source)
Thomson (1908), pp. 140-144
Foster & McDonald (2020)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Immigration High (Source)
Foster & McDonald (2020)
Language shift Low (Source)
Foster & McDonald (2020)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Gounder et al (2009), pp. 140

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Reddy (2011), pp. 192

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Foster & McDonald (2020)
Air travel Present and long-distance (Source)
Foster & McDonald (2020)
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 174

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Routledge (1991), pp. 22
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Tomlinson (2006), pp. 177, 182
Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Ryle (2005), pp. 63-66
Tomlinson (2006), pp. 177
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Foster & McDonald (2020)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Deane, W. (1921). Fijian Society, or the Sociology and Psychology of the Fijians. London: MacMillan & Co.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Viti Levu). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/631231/Viti-Levu

Evenhuis, N. L. & Bickel, N. J. (Eds.) (2005). Fiji Arthropods I. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 82, 3-25.

Fison, L. (1881). Land Tenure in Fiji. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 10, 332-352.

Foster, S., & McDonald, B. (2020). Fiji. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Fiji-republic-Pacific-Ocean/Land

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gounder, N., Reddy, M., & Prasad, B. C. (2009). Support for Democracy in the Fiji Islands: Does Schooling Matter? International Journal of Social Economics, 37 (2), 136-149. DOI: 10.1108/03068291011007255

Hale, H. (1846). United States Exploring Expedition: during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N (Vol VI: Ethnography and Philology). Philadelphia, PN: C. Sherman. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_yRvZM3mN-U4C/mode/1up

Hocart, A. M. (1912). On the Meaning of Kalou and the Origin of Fijian Temples. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 42, 437-449.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Marck, J. (2008). Proto-Oceanic Society was Matrilineal. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 117 (4), 345-382. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20707458

McArthur, N. (1967). Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

NEED PROPER REFERENCE

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Quain, B. (1948). Fijian Village. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Reddy, M. (2011). Challenging Democracy: Ethnicity in Postcolonial Fiji and Trinidad, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 17 (2), 182-202, DOI: 10.1080/13537113.2011.575314

Routledge, D. (1991). Bau. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp. 22-24). New York: G.K. Hall & Co.

Ryle, J. (2005). Roots of Land and Church: The Christian State Debate in Fiji. International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church, 5 (1), 58-78. DOI: 10.1080/14742250500078071.

Sahlins, M. (2004). Apologies to Thucydides: Understanding History as Culture and Vice Versa. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Scarr, D. (1984). Fiji: A Short History. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.

Thomson, B. (1908). The Fijians: A Study in the Decay of Custom. London, England: William Heinemann.

Thomson, B. H. (1895). The kalou-vu (ancestor-gods) of the Fijians. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 24, 340-359.

Thornley, A. W. (1979). 'Heretics and Papists': Wesleyan-Roman Catholic Rivalry in Fiji, 1844-1903. Journal of Religious History, 10 (3), 294-312. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9809.1979.tb00423.x

Tomlinson, M. (2006). Retheorizing Mana: Bible Translation and Discourse of Loss in Fiji. Oceania, 76 (2), 173-185. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40332021

Waterhouse, J. (1866). The king and people of Fiji; containing a life of Thakombau; with notices of the Fijians, their manners, customs, and superstitions, previous to the great religious reformation in 1854. London, UK: Wesleyan Conference. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/kingandpeoplefi00josegoog/mode/1up

Wilkes, C. (1845). Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (Vol. III). Philadelphia, PN: Lea & Blanchard.

Williams, T. (1858). Fiji and the Fijians (Vol. I: The iIslands and their inhabitants). London, U.K.: William Nichols. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/fijiandfijiansi00rowegoog/mode/1up