Also known as: East Futuna; Futunan

The island of Futuna, sometimes known as 'East Futuna' to distinguish it from another island of the same name, is in Western Polynesia. The island is known, among other things, for its connection to the martyr Pierre Chanel, whose murder in 1841 precipitated the conversion of the island to Christianity. Prior to this event, the islanders had worshipped Fakavelikele, a deified founding ancestor.

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Traditional Culture(1837)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 108
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 106, 107-108, 112-13
Ancestral spirits Absent (Source)
Smith (1892), pp. 40
Burrows (1936), pp. 102-113, 103-105
Kirch (1994b)
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 112-113
Kirch (1994b), pp. 261, 262
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 112-113
Kirch (1994b), pp. 261

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 113

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 104
Smith (1892), pp. 89
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 103-104
Smith (1892), pp. 39-40
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 26
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 26, 102-113
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 102-113, 106, 112-113

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 106
Kirch (1994b), pp. 261

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 90-91
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 75

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 102-103
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 102-103
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Kirch (1994b)
Burrows (1936), pp. 102-112, 117-121
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 70
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Kirch (1994b), pp. 262

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 192-199
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Smith (1892), pp. 38
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 56-70, 196
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Smith (1892), pp. 36
Burrows (1936), pp. 61-62
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 61
Kirch (1994b), pp. 272
Smith (1892), pp. 36
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 14-15
Kirch (1994a), pp. 41
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 14-15, 26, 36-37
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 72
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 72
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Pollock (1991), pp. 67
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Smith (1892), pp. 38
Marital residence Ambilocal - with either wife's or husband's kin (Source)
Pollock (1991), pp. 67

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 24-56, 117-122
Conflict within community Moderate (Source)
Pollock (1995), pp. 139
(No) internal warfare Common, at least every five years (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 37
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 56
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 225.3 (Source)
Kirch (1994b), pp. 257
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 3249.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 17-21
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 216
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130, 133
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 132, 133
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130, 133
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Kirch (1994b), pp. 258
Burrows (1936), pp. 130

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130, 145-152
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130, 132, 145-152
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130, 132

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 130-152
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Two (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 9-10, 15, 36-37

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Kirch & Dickinson (1976), pp. 29
Island Size (km²) 65.0 (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 7
Maximum elevation (meters) 760.0 (Source)
Kirch & Dickinson (1976), pp. 32

Location

Latitude -14.3 (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 7
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -178.0 (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 7
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1837-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process, although inroads had already been made with the general population. (Source)
Angleviel (1994), pp. 12, 74-75
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Angleviel (1994), pp. 74-75
Burrows (1936), pp. 19-20
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 22
Angleviel (1994), pp. 74-75
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 322-323
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Angleviel (1994), pp. 74-75
Burrows (1936), pp. 19-20

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Angleviel (1994), pp. 74-75
Burrows (1936), pp. 19-20, 22
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 322-323
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 312
Immigration Absent (Source)
Foster & Kiste (2020)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Foster & Kiste (2020)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Sam et al (2009), pp. 3

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 312
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 22
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 314

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 325
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
International Business Publications (2013), pp. 182
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 174

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Burrows (1936), pp. 20-21
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 311-312
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Kirch (1994b), pp. 286
Pollock (1995), pp. 144
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 322
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Van der Grijp (2005), pp. 322-323
External Links
References
Angleviel, F. (1994). Les Missions à Wallis et Futuna au XIXe Siécle. Bordeaux, France: Presses Université de Bordeaux.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Burrows, E. G. (1936). Ethnology of Futuna. Honolulu, HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Foster, S. and Kiste, R. C. (2020). Wallis and Futuna. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Wallis-and-Futuna.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

International Business Publications, USA. (2013). Wallis and Futuna Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Washington: International Business Publications.

Kirch P. V. (1994). The wet and the dry: Irrigation and agricultural intensification in Polynesia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Kirch, P. V. & Dickinson, W. R. (1976). Ethno-Archaeological Investigations in Futuna and Uvea (Western Polynesia): A Preliminary Report. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 85 (1), 27-69. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20705137

Kirch, P. V. (1994b). The Pre-Christian Ritual Cycle of Futuna, Western Polynesia. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 103 (3), 255-298. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20706578

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Pollock, N. J. (1995). The Power of Kava in Futuna and 'Uvea/Wallis. Canberra Anthropology, 18 (1-2), 136-165. DOI: 10.1080/03149099509508412

Pollock, N.J. (1991). "Futuna". In T.E. Hays (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 65-68). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Sahlins, M. D. (1958). Social stratification in Polynesia. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press

Sam, L.D., Paia, M., Vernaudon, J., Nocus, I., Salaun, M. & Fillol, V. (2009). School and Linguistic Diversity in French Oceanian Collectivities. Presented at the11th Pacific science inter-congress and of the 2nd symposium on French research in the Pacific, Papeete.

Smith, S. P. (1892). Futuna; or, Horne Island and its People, Western Pacific. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1 (1), 33-52. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20701229.

Van der Grijp, P. (2005). Development Polynesian Style: Contemporary Futunan Social Economy and its Cultural Features. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 114 (4), 311-388. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/documentSummary;dn=237942450180379;res=IELIND