Also known as: Aniwa; Futuna; West Futuna

Futuna and Aniwa are 'Polynesian Outliers' in southern Vanuatu, speaking dialects of the same language (Futuna-Aniwa). Futuna is sometimes called 'West Futuna' to distinguish it from the island of the same name further to the east.

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Traditional Culture(1866)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 42-43
Gunn (1914), pp. 221-222
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 34-57
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 222
Capell (1958), pp. 35-38
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Capell (1958)

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 222

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 194, 225
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 224-227
Capell (1958), pp. 19
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 217
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 34-57, 37-43

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 48

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 3-21, 4
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 49
Gunn (1914), pp. 213

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Capell (1958), pp. 46
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Capell (1958), pp. 46
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-57
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 23, 222
Capell (1958), pp. 44-45
Largest religious community Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 2-3, 45-46
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 45-46

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 5-19, 210-22
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 21-22
Gunn (1914), pp. 192-194
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 13-19, 21
Gunn (1914), pp. 193-194
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 21-22
Gunn (1914), pp. 192-194
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 16
Gunn (1914), pp. 207-208
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
McArthur (1981), pp. 22
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
McArthur (1967), pp. 22
Capell (1958), pp. 1-3
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 4, 8
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 8
Kinship system Dravidian (Source)
Hage (2001)
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 20

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-34
Spriggs (1985)
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-33
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 27
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 24.7 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. iii
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 1837.0 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. iii
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 6-7
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 24-25
Humphreys (1926), pp. 116
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 24-25, 29
Humphreys (1926), pp. 116
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 19-34
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Two (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. i

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. III
Island Size (km²) 10.7 (Source)
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 589.0 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. III

Location

Latitude -19.5 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 170.2 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1866-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 3-6, 12-13
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Gunn (1914)
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 169
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. xv
Secular History +

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 180

Demographic and Social Changes

Immigration Absent (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122-123
Language shift Medium (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 123
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 159-173
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Capell, A. (1958). The Culture and Language of Futuna and Aniwa, New Hebrides. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Fitzgerald, G. & Hayward, P. (2009). Outlier Style: The Futuna Sound and Vanuatu Stringband Music. Musical Islands: Exploring Connections Between Music, Place and Research, 119, 120-142. Retrieved from islandresearchph.com.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gunn, W. (1914). The Gospel of Futuna. Hodder & Stoughton. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/gospelinfutunawi00gunniala/mode/1up

Hage, P. (2001). The Evolution of Dravidian Kinship Systems in Oceania: Linguistic Evidence. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 7, No. 3, 487-508. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3134415.

Humphreys, C. B. (1926). The Southern New Hebrides: An Ethnological Record. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

McArthur, N. (1967). Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

McArthur, N. (1981). New Hebrides Population, 1840-1967: A Re-Interpretation. Noumea, New Caledonia : South Pacific Commission.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Spriggs, M. (1985). ‘A school in every district’: The cultural geography of conversion on Aneityum, Southern Vanuatu. The Journal of Pacific History, 20(1), 23-41.