Futuna, sometimes known as West Futuna to distinguish it from the Polynesian island also known as Futuna, is a high island in the south of Vanuatu. Although Futuna is not considered part of Polynesia, the language and culture of the island bear a strong Polynesian imprint.

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Traditional Culture(1840-1865)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 42-43
Gunn (1914), pp. 221-222
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 34-57
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 222
Capell (1958), pp. 35-38
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Capell (1958)

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 222

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 194, 225
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 224-227
Capell (1958), pp. 19
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 217
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 34-57, 37-43

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 48

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 49
Gunn (1914), pp. 213
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 3-21, 4

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Capell (1958), pp. 46
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Capell (1958), pp. 46
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-57
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 23, 222
Capell (1958), pp. 44-45
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 2-3, 45-46
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 45-46

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 13-19, 21
Gunn (1914), pp. 193-194
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 16
Gunn (1914), pp. 207-208
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 21-22
Gunn (1914), pp. 192-194
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 21-22
Gunn (1914), pp. 192-194
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 5-19, 210-22
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 18
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 18
Capell (1958), pp. 1-3
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 8
Gunn (1914), pp. 205
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 205
Capell (1958), pp. 8
Kinship system Dravidian (Source)
Hage (2001), pp. 494

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-32
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-33
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 31-34
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 44
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 72.5 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. iii
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7409.1 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. iii
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 6-7
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 29

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 24-25
Humphreys (1926), pp. 116
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 24-25, 29
Humphreys (1926), pp. 116
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 197-198

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 19-34
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 1

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -19.5 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 170.2 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. 1
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. III
Island Size (km²) 10.7 (Source)
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 589.0 (Source)
Capell (1958), pp. III
Post Contact History(1865-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 3-6, 12-13
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Gunn (1914)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. xv
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 169
Secular History +

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 180

Demographic and Social Changes

Immigration Absent (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122-123
Language shift Medium (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 123
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Gunn (1914), pp. 159-173
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Fitzgerald & Hayward (2009), pp. 122
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Capell, A. (1958). The Culture and Language of Futuna and Aniwa, New Hebrides. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Fitzgerald, G. & Hayward, P. (2009). Outlier Style: The Futuna Sound and Vanuatu Stringband Music. Musical Islands: Exploring Connections Between Music, Place and Research, 119, 120-142. Retrieved from islandresearchph.com.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gunn, W. (1914). The Gospel of Futuna. Hodder & Stoughton. Retrieved from https://ia600306.us.archive.org/32/items/gospelinfutunawi00gunniala/gospelinfutunawi00gunniala.pdf

Hage, P. (2001). The Evolution of Dravidian Kinship Systems in Oceania: Linguistic Evidence. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 7, No. 3, 487-508. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3134415.

Humphreys, C. B. (1926). The Southern New Hebrides: An Ethnological Record. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency