Also known as: Ga'dang

The Gaddang are a group of peoples speaking related languages in the eastern Cordillera of Luzon, the largest island of the Philippines. While most Gaddang had converted to Christianity by 1900, a minority (around 10%) maintained their indigenous religion until the 1970s. This minority, known as the Pagan Gaddang, was studied in detail by the ethnographer Ben Wallace in the 1960s. Since the conversion of these Gaddang to Christianity, the term 'Pagan Gaddang' has become defunct. Wallace (2013) now refers to this group as the Ga'dang, which reflects their local pronunciation of their ethonym.

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Traditional Culture(1940-1965)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 96-97
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-97
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-97, 104
Lebar (1975), pp. 102
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-97
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-104, 92, 97, 141-144

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-97

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 93
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 93
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 141-144
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-97, 141-144
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 92-104, 92, 141-144

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Wallace (1975), pp. 207-208

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 79-82
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 91-115
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 102
Wallace (2013), pp. 96-97

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 40, 97-104
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 38-42, 97-104
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 38-42
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 40, 97-104
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 38-42, 97-104
Social Environment +
Population 2500 (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101
Population of largest political community 99 or fewer (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101, 102
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 101, 102
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 101, 102
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101-102
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 80-81
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 80-81
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 27, 38-39
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 100
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 812.3 (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 12-13
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 8-10, 92-104
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 8-10, 92-104
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 9, 109
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101
Wallace (2013), pp. 54-56
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Wallace (1951), pp. 55-56
Land-based gathering Minor (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 101
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 7-8

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 17.2 (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 12-13
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.5 (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 12-13
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213, 217
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Post Contact History(1965-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 112
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 111
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 8

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 109-115, 110
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 48-49, 82-83
Language shift Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 70
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 70
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Philippines) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 48-49

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 48-49, 82-83
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 48-49, 82-83

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 55-56
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 8, 113
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Wallace (2013), pp. 8
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/352414/Luzon

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Philippines). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/456399/Philippines

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Wallace, B. (1974). Pagan Gaddang Mediums. Arctic Anthropology, 11, 204-212. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/stable/40315816

Wallace, B. (2013). Weeds, Roads, and God: A Half-Century of Culture Change among the Philippine Ga'dang. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.

Wallace, B. J. (1969). Pagan Gaddang Spouse Exchange. Ethnology, 8(2), 183-188. doi: 10.2307/3772979

Wallace, F. C. (1951). Mentaweian Social Organization. American Anthropologist, 53 (3), 370-375. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1951.53.3.02a00060