Also known as: Ifugaw; Ipugao; Yfugao

The Ifugao are one of several large, historically non-Christian ethnic groups living in the mountains of northern Luzon. The Ifugao have been noted for worshipping a very large number of supernatural agents (over 1000, according to Barton, 1946). Since the 1960s, most Ifugao have converted to Christianity.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 27-35
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 27-35, 38-39
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 100, 113
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 27-28
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 11-12, 27-28

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 59, 70

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 169-198
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 176-177, 193
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Beyer (1913), pp. 99-100
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 11-12, 27-28, 35, 67

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 61

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 12
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 12
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 11-14

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 15
Barton (1946), pp. 141-157
Otley & Barton (1911), pp. 228
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 99-198
Goldman (1961), pp. 154, 156
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 19
Barton (1946), pp. 160-161
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 9, 19, 23-24

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Worcester (1906), pp. 827
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Worcester (1906), pp. 827-828
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Worcester (1906), pp. 827-828
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Worcester (1906), pp. 827
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Worcester (1906), pp. 827-828
Social Environment +
Population 70,000 (Source)
Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1918), pp. 900
Lebar (1975), pp. 78
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 100
Otley & Barton (1911), pp. 228
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 99-100
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 99-100
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 100
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 100

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 77
Barton (1922), pp. 387
Goldman (1961), pp. 168
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 77
Barton (1919), pp. 387
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 7
Roth (1974), pp. 376
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 28
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Barton (1919), pp. 8-9
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 823.9 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Barton (1946), pp. 13
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 38-39
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 398, 421
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 391-392, 394, 397
Land-based gathering Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 397
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 391-392, 397
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 398-307, 398

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 396-397
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 396-397
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 396-397

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 387, 391-408, 398
Metalworking Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 80
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 99

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 16.7 (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 386
Longitude 121.2 (Source)
Barton (1922), pp. 386
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213, 217
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 38-40
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 24, 38-39
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2004), pp. 499
Dumia (1979), pp. 24, 83

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 38-40
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2013), pp. 267-368
Immigration Absent (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2004), pp. 498

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2004), pp. 498
Wardini (2008), pp. 71-72
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2013), pp. 374

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 43-44, 54

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Dumia (1979), pp. 27-28
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2013)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Kwiatkowski (2004), pp. 499
External Links
References
Barton, R. F. (1919). Ifugao Law. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-002&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Barton, R. F. (1922). Ifugao Economics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-003&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Barton, R. F. (1930). The half-way sun: Life among the Headhunters of the Philippines. NY: Brewer & Warren, Inc. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseAuthorsFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-012&tocOffset=tocPubInfoP

Barton, R. F. (1946). The religion of the Ifugao. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseAuthorsFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-001&tocOffset=tocPubInfoP

Barton, R. F. (1955). The Mythology of the Ifugaos. New Haven, CT: Human Resource News Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-020&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Beyer, H. O. (1913). Origin Myths among the Mountain Peoples of the Philippines. New Haven, CT: Human Resource Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Asia/OA19%27%29&docId=oa19-018&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1918). Census of the Philippine Islands (Vol. II). Manila, Bureau of Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusofphilippi03philiala

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dumia, M. A. (1979). The Ifugao world. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/352414/Luzon

Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines). (2014). Map of Northern Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_n

Goldman, I. (1961). The Ifugao of the Philippine islands. In Mead, M. (Ed.), Cooperation and competition among primitive peoples (pp. 153-179). NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Hockings, P. (1993A). Ifugao. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume 5: East and Southeast Asia (99-101). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Keesing, F.M. & Keesing, M. (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. London, England: George Allen and Unwin.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Kwiatkowski, L. (2013). Globilization, environmental change, and coping strategies among the Ifugao of the Philippine Cordillera mountains. Continuity and Change to Mountain Environments Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation, 7, 361-378.

Kwiatkowski, L. M. (2004). Ifugao. In C. R. Ember & M. Ember (Eds.), Men and women in the world’s culture (pp. 498-507). United States: Springer.

Lambrecht, F. (1962). The religion of the Ifugao. Philippine Sociological Review, 10(1/2), 33-40.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

National Statistics Office (2003). 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Ifugao. Philippines: National Statistics Office.

Otley, B. H., & Barton, R. H. (1911). An Ifugao burial ceremony. Manila: Bureau of Printing

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Roth, D. (1974). Notes on the Ethnohistory of Northern Luzon. Ethnohistory, 21 (4), 371-373. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/481150

Wardini, E. M. (2008). Food for the ethnic minority: Maintaining food security for the Ifugao community, in Northern Luzon, in the Philippines. Confluences and Challenges in Building the Asian Community in the Early 21st Century, 65-77.

Worcester, D. C. (1906). The non-Christian tribes of northern Luzon. The Philippine Journal of Science, 1(8), 791-877