Also known as: Calinga; Kalingga; Kinalinga

The Kalinga are one of several large, historically non-Christian groups living in the mountains of northern Luzon. They are grouped together on the grounds of cultural and linguistic similarity rather than common identity - according to Lawless (1993), "Kalinga" was originally an exonym meaning "enemy". The principal source on this culture (Dozier, 1966) focuses on the Northern Kalinga, who were less acculturated than the Southern Kalinga at this time.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196, 87-88
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 182-183
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160-161
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160-161, 181-183, 187

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 162

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are the principal determinant of the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 181
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196, 167

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 182-183

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 113
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127-158, 159-196
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 53-126, 159-196

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 161, 164, 198-208
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 55-56, 164, 197
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 173-178

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17, 84-116
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 84-116, 97
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17-18, 84-116
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 84-116, 200-201
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17-18, 84-116
Social Environment +
Population 20,000 (Source)
Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1918), pp. 900
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 55-57
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 60
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 55-56
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 197-212
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 31
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 5
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 772.9 (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 5
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 25-26
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 26
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 7, 30-31, 44-45, 159-196
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 148-149
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 132-134
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 134
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 132-134
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 127, 135

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 134-135
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 134-135
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 134

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 26-28, 31, 127-132
Metalworking Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 93
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 2

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 17.4 (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 5
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.2 (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 5
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213, 217
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 44
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 44
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 44-46
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 44

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 44-46
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 37-49
Onoe (2011), pp. 89-90
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 41-42

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 37, 46-47, 48
Sea port Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 2,5

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 38
Lawless (1993), pp. 121
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 37-46
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 90-91
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1918). Census of the Philippine Islands (Vol. II). Manila, Bureau of Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusofphilippi03philiala

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dozier, E. P. (1966). Mountain Arbiters: The Changing Life of a Philippine Hill People. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/352414/Luzon

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, F.M. & Keesing, M. (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. London, England: George Allen and Unwin.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lawless, R. (1993). Kalinga. In P. Hockings, Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (121-123). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Northern Philippines [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_n

Onoe, T. (2011). 'Play' in Gopas Ritual in Kalinga Province, Philippines. Asian Studies, 47, 87-108.

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9