Also known as: Calinga; Kalingga; Kinalinga

The Kalinga are one of several large, historically non-Christian groups living in the mountains of northern Luzon. They are grouped together on the grounds of cultural and linguistic similarity rather than common identity - according to Lawless (1993), 'Kalinga' was originally an exonym meaning "enemy". The principal source on this culture (Dozier, 1966) focuses on the Northern Kalinga, who were less acculturated than the Southern Kalinga at this time.

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Traditional Culture(1916)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 181-183
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160-161
Deified ancestor(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 181-183
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-18
Dozier (1966), pp. 182-183

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 20-21
Dozier (1966), pp. 162

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 23
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 181
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 18

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 53-126, 159-196
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28, 84-136
Dozier (1966), pp. 127-196
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 20
Dozier (1966), pp. 181

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 24
Dozier (1966), pp. 164, 198
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 20-21, 27
Dozier (1966), pp. 160
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196, 200
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 17-28
Dozier (1966), pp. 159-196

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17-18, 84-116
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17-18, 84-116
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 17, 84-116
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 84-116, 200-201
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 84-116, 97
Social Environment +
Population 20,000 (Source)
Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1921), pp. 900
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122-123
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Kinship system Eskimo (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 122

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 21-52, 197-212
Conflict within community High (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 59-60
(No) internal warfare Common, at least every five years (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 55-56
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 31-32, 35
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 8
Distance to nearest continent 772.9 (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 8
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 25-26
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 26
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 28-32, 44, 159-196
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 148-149
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 132-134
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 134
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 132-134
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 3, 127, 135

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 134-135
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 134-135
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 127, 134-135

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 26-28, 31, 127-132
Metalworking Present (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 128
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 8

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Yumul et al. (2009), pp. 732-733
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)

Location

Latitude 17.5 (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.3 (Source)
Barton (1949), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1916-2014)Expand All +
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 37-49
Onoe (2011), pp. 89-90
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 41-42

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 37, 46-47, 48
Sea port Absent (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 2,5

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Dozier (1966), pp. 38
Lawless (1993), pp. 121
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Lawless (1993), pp. 121
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 90-91
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Onoe (2011), pp. 89
External Links
References
Barton, R. F. (1949). The Kalingas: Their iInstitutions and custom law. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1921). Census of the Philippine Islands taken under the direction of the Philippine Legislature in the year 1918 (Vol. II: Population and Mortality). Manila, Bureau of Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusofphilippi03philiala

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dozier, E. P. (1966). Mountain Arbiters: The Changing Life of a Philippine Hill People. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lawless, R. (1993). Kalinga. In P. Hockings, Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (121-123). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Luzon (2019). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved https://www.britannica.com/place/Luzon

Onoe, T. (2011). 'Play' in Gopas Ritual in Kalinga Province, Philippines. Asian Studies, 47, 87-108.

Yumul, G., Dimalanta, C., Queaño, K., & Marquez, E. (2009). Philippines, geology. In R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands (pp. 732-738). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.