Also known as: Longgu

Longgu is the name of a village on the north coast of Guadalcanal, and of the language spoken by people living in this village and its neighbours. The principal source on this culture (Hogbin, 1964) refers to this language as "Kaoka". The Longgu-speakers worshipped their ancestors, as well as supernatural agents embodied in sharks and snakes.

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Traditional Culture(1885-1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-92
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 78-79
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 83-84
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 75-76
God(s) Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-90

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 79-84
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 79-84, 83
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4, 72-90

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 78

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 13-14
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 41-50
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 72-90

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana and social status Moderately associated (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Keesing (1984), pp. 142-143
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1929), pp. 58-61, 72-90
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 75, 78
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 6, 77, 79
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 6, 73, 79

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 23-24
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Scarification Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 23-24
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 2, 5
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 2, 5, 6
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 4
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 4
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 90

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 59, 61
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 51-61
Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 51
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 47-50
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Solomon Islands) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 5901.3 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Solomon Islands) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 89
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Land-based gathering Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3, 41-50
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 43
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 47-50
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1-2

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -9.7 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Solomon Islands) (2014)
Hogbin (1964), pp. Map (Guadalcanal and the surrounding Solomon Islands)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 160.7 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Solomon Islands) (2014)
Hogbin (1964), pp. Map (Guadalcanal and the surrounding Solomon Islands)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Guadalcanal Island) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 5302.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Guadalcanal Island) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2330.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Guadalcanal Island) (2014)
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 91
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 91
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 95

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 95
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Churchill, W. (1916). Sissano: Movements of Migration Within and Through Melanesia. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institute of Washington.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Guadalcanal Island). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/247562/Guadalcanal-Island

Ethnologue (Map of Solomon Islands). (2014). Map of Solomon Islands. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/SB.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gratton, N. E. (1991). Guadalcanal. In Hays, T.E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania. New York: G.K. Hall & Co. (88-92).

Hogbin, H. I. (1929). Ongtong Java. Australian Geographer, 1(2), 86-91. DOI: 10.1080/00049182908702064.

Hogbin, I. (1964). A Guadalcanal Society: The Kaoka Speakers. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.