Also known as: Longgu

Longgu is the name of a village on the north coast of Guadalcanal, and of the language spoken by people living in this village and its neighbours. The principal source on this culture (Hogbin, 1964) refers to this language as 'Kaoka'. The Longgu-speakers worshipped their ancestors, as well as supernatural agents embodied in sharks and snakes.

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1911)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-92
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 78-79
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 83-84
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-73, 75-76
God(s) Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72-90

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 79-84
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 79-84, 83
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4, 72-90

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 78

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 72-90
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 41-50
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 13-14

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Keesing (1984), pp. 142-143
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana and social status Moderately associated (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 72
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 58-61, 72-90
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 75, 78
Largest religious community Larger than a local community, smaller than the society (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 77, 79
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 6, 73, 79

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 23-24
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Scarification Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 23-24
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1, 19-40, 23
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 2, 5
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 2, 5, 6
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 4
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 4-18, 4
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 90

Conflict

Conflict within community Low (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 51
(No) internal warfare Common, at least every five years (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 51-61
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 47-50
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Tryon & Hackman (1983), pp. 24
Distance to nearest continent 1724.0 (Source)
Tryon & Hackman (1983), pp. 24
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 89
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Land-based gathering Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3, 41-50
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 43
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 47-50
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Bellwood et al (1975)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 1-2

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
'Guadalcanal Island' (2011)
Island Size (km²) 5302.0 (Source)
'Guadalcanal Island' (2011)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2330.0 (Source)
'Guadalcanal Island' (2011)

Location

Latitude -9.7 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. Map (Guadalcanal and the surrounding Solomon Islands)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 160.7 (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. Map (Guadalcanal and the surrounding Solomon Islands)
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1911-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 91
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Gratton (1991), pp. 91
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 95

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 3

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Hogbin (1964), pp. 95
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P., Ayres, W. S., Clune Jr, F. J., Craib, J., Durbin, T. E., Young, F. A., ... & Green, R. C. (1975). The Prehistory of Oceania [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology, 16(1), 9-28. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2740946

Churchill, W. (1916). Sissano: Movements of Migration Within and Through Melanesia. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institute of Washington.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gratton, N. E. (1991). Guadalcanal. In Hays, T.E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania. New York: G.K. Hall & Co. (88-92).

Guadalcanal Island (2011). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Guadalcanal-Island

Hogbin, I. (1964). A Guadalcanal Society: The Kaoka Speakers. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Tryon, D. T., & Hackman, B. D. (1983). Solomon Islands languages: An internal classification. Canberra, Australia: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.