Also known as: Kedangese

The name 'Kedang' denotes a region on the north coast of the island of Lomblen in Eastern Indonesia, a state that encompassed this area in the past, the language spoken in this area, and the people inhabiting this area. Like a number of other Eastern Indonesian peoples, the Kedang acknowledged a high god whose name, Ula-Lojo, was composed of the words for 'Moon' and 'Sun'. Ula-Lojo was conceived as remote, and more earthly beings known as 'the spirits of the land' were the usual recipients of worship. In the late 19th century, the state of Kedang was conquered by the neighboring state of Adonara and its Dutch allies. Subsequently, most Kedangese converted to Christianity.

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Traditional Culture(1909)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 62-63, 218-219,
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 136
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 72, 75, 128-129
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-142, 158-233
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-142, 158-233, 103-124

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 63, 215-216, 218-219

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 190, 202
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 190, 202
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 28-29
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 28-29
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-142, 158-233, 3-4, 33, 58, 40-41, 125-140

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 105

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-102
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 218-219

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 181-182, 205
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 133
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-92, 90-95

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-17, 143-209
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-19
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 143-209, 215
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-19
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-19, 143-209, 158
Social Environment +
Population 11,000 (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 19
Population of largest political community 10,000-99,999 (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 10-12, 19
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 132
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 132
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 132
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 132

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 4-13
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 89-102
(No) internal warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 4-13
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 2-3, 10-12
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 131
Distance to nearest continent 677.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Barnes (2001), pp. 272-273
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 103-124, 158-217, 174
Cribb (2000), pp. 109
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 2-3, 103-224
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 2-3
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-17
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 17
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 17
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-17
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-17
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 16-17

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 11-12, 16-17
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 131
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Barnes (2001), pp. 272-273
'Lomblen Island' (1998)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Audley-Charles (1986), pp. 243
Island Size (km²) 1292.0 (Source)
'Lomblen Island' (1998)
Maximum elevation (meters) 1644.0 (Source)
'Lomblen Island' (1998)

Location

Latitude -8.2 (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 8
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 123.8 (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 8
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1909-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 10
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Barnes (1993), pp. 131
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. ix, 10
Barnes (1974)

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 10
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Barnes (1974), pp. 9
Barnes (1993), pp. 132

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Oxfam (2008), pp. 9

Modern Infrastructure

Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 158-162
External Links
References
Audley-Charles, M. G. (1986). Timor-Tanimbar Trough: The Foreland Basin of the Evolving Banda Orogen. In Allen, P. A. (Ed.), Foreland Basins: Special Publication 8 of the IAS. London: William Clowes Ltd.

Barnes, R. H. (1974). Kedang: A Study of the Collective Thought of an Eastern Indonesian People. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Barnes, R. H. (1993). Kedang. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (131-133). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Barnes, R. H. (2001). Alliance and Warfare in an Eastern Indonesian Principality: Kedang in the Last Half of the Nineteenth Century. Bildragen tot de Taal-, Lande- en Volkenkunde, 157 (2), 271-311. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27865733

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Household Economy Assessment in the Lembata District - NEED PROPER REFERENCE

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lomblen Island (1998). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Lomblen-Island

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency