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Traditional Culture(1810-1835)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dobbin (2011)
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dobbin (2011)
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 107-109, 119
Deified ancestor(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 107-109, 119
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 107-108

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Dobbin (2011)


Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Blust (2007), pp. 419
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 113
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 107
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 108
Social Environment +
Population 3000 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 262
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 262
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 129
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 129
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 129
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 129
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 129
Ritter (1980), pp. 764


Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 130
Athens (2007), pp. 267
Conflict between communities of the culture Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 130
Younger (2009), pp. 139
Cultural Isolation +
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 266.8 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 4795.6 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 263
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 263
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 263
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 262-263
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Google Maps (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 5.3 (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 128
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 163.0 (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 128
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Island Size (kmĀ²) 109.0 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Maximum elevation (meters) 629.0 (Source)
Athens (2007), pp. 259
Post Contact History(1835-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +


Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Buck (2005), pp. 33-130
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Buck (2005), pp. 33-130
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Dobbin (2011), pp. 104
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 128, 130
Secular History +

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 128
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 128

Modern Infrastructure

Air travel Present and long-distance (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kosrae) (2014)
Sea port Present (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Kosrae) (2014)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Peoples (1991), pp. 130
External Links
2014. Kosrae. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from:

Athens, J.S. (2007). Prehistoric Population Growth on Kosrae, Eastern Caroline Islands. In P.V. Kirch & J. Rallu, The Growth and Collapse of Pacific Island Societies (pp 257-277). Honolulu, HW: University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved from

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from

Buck, E.M. (2005). Island of Angels: The Growth of the Church on Kosrae. Honolulu, HI: Watermark Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014).

Dobbin, J. (2011). Summoning the powers beyond: Traditional religions of Micronesia. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Federated States of Micronesia). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from

Gorenflo, L. J. (1993). Demographic Change in Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia in Pacific Studies volume 16 (2), pp. 67-118.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156,

Peoples, J.G. (1991). "Kosrae". In T.E. Hays (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (128-131). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Ritter, P. L. (1980). Social Organization, Incest, and Fertility in a Kosraen Village. American Ethnologist, 7(4), 759-773. Retrieved from

Younger, S. M. (2009). Violence and Warfare in the Pre-Contact Caroline Islands. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 118 (2), 135-164. Retrieved from