Also known as: Fiu

Kwara'ae are a bush tribe in the northern half of Malaita Island, which is within the Solomon Islands. They have largely converted to Chrisitanity after a fair amount of conflict with colonial powers.

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Traditional Culture(1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-84
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-54
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-54, 69-70
God(s) Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-84

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 56-60

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-53
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-53, 56-58
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-23
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-23
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 73

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 35-37
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 68

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana and social status Unrelated (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-84
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 58-59
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 66
Social Environment +
Population 8,000 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 16, 24
Eberhard (2020)
Population of largest political community 99 or fewer (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 66-69
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 26-27
Keesing (1991), pp. 161
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 161
Kinship system Iroquois (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 162
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 162
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 161-162

Conflict

(No) external warfare Common, at least every five years (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-139
Conflict within community Moderate (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 44-49
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 44-49
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24, 88
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Distance to nearest continent 1801.0 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 85-87, 104
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 98
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
'Malaita' (2019)
Island Size (km²) 4200.0 (Source)
Moore (2007), pp. 214
Maximum elevation (meters) 1438.0 (Source)
'Malaita' (2019)

Location

Latitude -8.7 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 160.8 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 111
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 12
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 119

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, but did not survive to the present-day (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 183-185
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 171
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 206, 240

Modern Infrastructure

Air travel Present, local only (Source)
'Malaita' (2019)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 111
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 171
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 227-228
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Burt, B. (1994). Tradition and Christianity: The Colonial Transformation of a Solomon Islands Society. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (23rd ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1991). Malaita. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (160-163). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Malaita (2019). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Malaita

Moore, C. (2007). The Misappropriation of Malaitan Labour. The Journal of Pacific History, 42 (2), 211-232. DOI: 10.1080/00223340701461668