Also known as: Fiu

Kwara'ae are a bush tribe in the northern half of Malaita Island, which is within the Solomon Islands. They have largely converted to Chrisitanity after a fair amount of conflict with colonial powers.

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Traditional Culture(1895-1920)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-84
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-54
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-54, 69-70
God(s) Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 51-84

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 56-60

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-53
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 52-53, 56-58
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-23
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-23
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 73

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 68
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 35-37

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana and social status Unrelated (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 54-55
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 21-84
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 58-59
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 66-67, 69
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 66
Social Environment +
Population 10,000 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15-16
Population of largest political community 99 or fewer (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 66-69
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 26-27
Keesing (1991), pp. 161
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 161
Kinship system Iroquois (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 162
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 162
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Keesing (1991), pp. 161-162

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 44-49
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 45-49
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 47-49
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 5835.4 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 85-87, 104
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 23-24

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 24
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -8.7 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 160.8 (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 15
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Malaita) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 4200.0 (Source)
Moore (2007), pp. 214
Maximum elevation (meters) 1438.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Malaita) (2014)
Post Contact History(1920-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 111
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 119
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 12

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, but did not survive to the present-day (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 183-185
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 171
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 206, 240

Modern Infrastructure

Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Malaita) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 111
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 171
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Burt (1994), pp. 227-228
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Burt, B. (1994). Tradition and Christianity: The Colonial Transformation of a Solomon Islands Society. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Malaita). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/359476/Malaita

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Solomon Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/553556/Solomon-Islands

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1991). Malaita. In Hays, T. E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania (160-163). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Moore, C. (2007). The Misappropriation of Malaitan Labour. The Journal of Pacific History, 42 (2), 211-232. DOI: 10.1080/00223340701461668