Manam is a volcanic island off the north coast of New Guinea. As the island's soil is poor, the people of Manam depend heavily on trade with the mainland. The people of Manam believe (and possibly still believe) that the volcano on their island is inhabited by a culture heroine called Zaria.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wedgwood (1934b), pp. 73, 74-75
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 396-402
Lutkehaus (1995)
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 396-402
Lutkehaus (1995)
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 399
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 56
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 55-56
God(s) Absent (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 396-402
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 4-7, 9-11, 22-23, 30-34, 40-43, 53-58, 157-159

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 42, 318

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Franks (1979), pp. 109
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Franks (1979), pp. 110
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 55-56
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 55-56
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 4-7, 9, 41, 55-56

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 4-5

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Absent (Source)
Wedgwood (1959)
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 391-396
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 271-272
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 384

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 257-258
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 136
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 265-266, 317-318
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168, 169

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Wedgwood (1933), pp. 373-403
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 201-210
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 206
Wedgwood (1933), pp. 373-403
Scarification Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 184-185, 201-210
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 381-381
Wedgwood (1933), pp. 373-403
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 201-210
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Wedgwood (1933), pp. 343-403
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 201-210
Social Environment +
Population 4000 (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 381-382
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 381-382, 384-385
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 252-253, 265
Lutkehaus (1990), pp. 194
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168

Conflict

Conflict within communities High (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 136
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 136
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 136
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 378-379
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 4219.9 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 68-69
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393-394
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 394
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 394
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 391, 393

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 60
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 393
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 378-379

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -4.1 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 145.0 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 39
Island Size (km²) 90.0 (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 40
Maximum elevation (meters) 1300.0 (Source)
Wedgwood (1934a), pp. 377
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 68-72
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 68-72
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 70-71

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, but did not survive to the present-day (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 352-361, 368-380
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 169
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 66-67
Foreign education systems Medium (Source)
Mercer & Kelman (2010), pp. 417

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Mercer & Kelman (2010), pp. 413
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 168
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 93-94

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 224
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 94

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 65-72
Lutkehaus (1991), pp. 167
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 66-67
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Lutkehaus (1995), pp. 70-71
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Churchill, W. (1916). Sissano: Movements of Migration Within and Through Melanesia. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institute of Washington.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Franks, J. (1979). Death Rites and the Journey of the Soul Among the Manam. In Habel, N.C. (Ed.), Powers, Plumes and Piglets: Phenomena of Melanesian Religion. Bedford Park, Australia: The Australian Association for the Study of Religions.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Huber, M. T., & Lutkehaus, N. (Eds.). (1999). Gendered missions: Women and men in missionary discourse and practice. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lutkehaus, N. C. (1990). Hierarchy and 'heroic society': Manam variations in Sepik social structure. Oceania, 60 (2), 179-197. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40331156.

Lutkehaus, N.C. (1991). Manam. In Hayes, T.E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania. New York, NY: G.K. Hall and Company.

Lutkehaus, N.C. (1995). Zaria's Fire: Gendered Moments in Manam Ethnography. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Mercer, J. & Kelman, I. (2010). Living Alongside a Volcano in Baliau, Papua New Guinea. Disaster Prevention and Management, 19 (4), 412-422. DOI: 10.1108/09653561011070349

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Wedgwood, C. (1933). Girls’ puberty rites in Manam island, New Guinea. Oceania, 4(2), 132-155. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40327456.

Wedgwood, C. (1934A). Report on Research in Manam Island, Mandated Territory of New Guinea. Oceania, 4 (4), 373-403. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27976161

Wedgwood, C. (1934b). Sickness and its treatment in Manam Island, New Guinea. Oceania, 5(1), 64-79. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40327486.

Wedgwood, C. (1959). Manam kinship. Oceania, 29(4), 239-256. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40329171.