Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1823)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 161-206
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 9-25, 161-206
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 161-206
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 161-206
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 9-25, 161-206

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 178, 188

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 197-206
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 197-206
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 9-18
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 9-18
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 9-83, 18-19, 40, 161-206

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 12, 162, 188, 306

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 140
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 141-142
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 92

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Walter & Reilly (2010), pp. 335, 362
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Walter & Reilly (2010), pp. 362, 363
Mana and social status Tightly coupled (Source)
Walter & Reilly (2010), pp. 335, 365
Mana linked to genealogy Present, linked to both paternal and maternal lines (Source)
Walter & Reilly (2010), pp. 362
Buck (1934), pp. 96
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 157-206
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 178-179
Largest religious community Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 112-125
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 112, 114

Rites

Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Gill (1856), pp. 166
Buck (1934), pp. 84-95
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 89-90
Social Environment +
Population 2500 (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 6
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 6, 112
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 97
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 97
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Crocombe & Crocombe (1991), pp. 41
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Crocombe & Crocombe (1991), pp. 41
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Crocombe & Crocombe (1991), pp. 41

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 26-78
Gill (1894), pp. 323-326
Allen (1996)
Conflict within community Moderate (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 84-124, 151-157, 152-153, 155
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 105, 158, 161
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
Allen (1996), pp. 17-18
Gill (1856), pp. 323-326
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 198.2 (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 4
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 4891.0 (Source)
Buck (1934)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Gill (1894), pp. 323-326
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 136-143, 137
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 136-143, 145
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 136-143, 136
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 136-143, 137
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 136

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 137, 144-147
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 137, 144-147
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 137-143, 144-147

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 130-147, 130
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 132-135
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 4
Buck (1993), pp. 15

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
'Mangaia' (2017)
Island Size (km²) 52.0 (Source)
'Mangaia' (2017)
Maximum elevation (meters) 169.0 (Source)
'Mangaia' (2017)

Location

Latitude -21.9 (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 4
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -157.9 (Source)
Buck (1934), pp. 4
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1823-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 89-91
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 89-126, 89-91, 268-286, 274
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 2
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Reilly (2007), pp. 35-36
Reilly (2009), pp. 278-279

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 89-91, 268-286
Secular History +

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 2
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 2
'Mangaia' (2017)
Buck (1934), pp. 3

Modern Infrastructure

Air travel Present and long-distance (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 1-2
Sea port Absent (Source)
'Mangaia' (2017)

Demographic and Social Changes

Immigration Absent (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 1-3
Language shift Low (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 3
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Foster et al. (2021)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 7-72
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 72
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Reilly (2009), pp. 2
External Links
References
Allen, J. (1991). The Role of Agriculture in the Evolution of the Pre-Contact Hawaiian State. Asian Perspectives, 30 (1), 117-132. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/19259

Allen, M.S. (1996). Patterns of Interaction in Southern Cook Island Prehistory. In Glover, I. C., and Bellwood, B. (Eds.), Indo-Pacific Prehistory: The Chiang Mai Papers (Volume 2) (pp 13-22). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Buck, P. (1934). Mangaian Society. Honolulu, HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Buck, P. (1993). Mangaia and the Mission. Honolulu, HI: B. P. Bishop Museum.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Crocome, R & Crocombe, M. T. (1991). "Cook Islands". In T.E. Hays (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 40-42). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (23rd ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com

Foster, F., Crocombe, M. T. & Crocombe, R. G. (2012). Cook Islands. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Cook-Islands.

Gems from coral islands; or, incidents of contrast between savage and Christian life of the South Sea Islanders (Vol. II: Eastern Polynesia: Comprising the Rarotonga Group, Penrhyn Islands and Savage Island. London, U.K.: Ward & Co. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/gemsfromcoralis00unkngoog/mode/1up

Gill, W. (1894). From Darkness to Light in Polynesia. London, UK: The Religious Tract Society. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/fromdarknesstol00gillgoog.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Mangaia (2017). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Mangaia.

Reilly, M.P.J. (2007). Transforming Mangaia's Spiritual World: Letters from the Early Christian Community of Oneroa. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 116 (1), 35-57. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20707377 .

Reilly, M.P.J. (2009). Ancestral Voices from Mangaia: A history of the ancient gods and chiefs. Auckland, New Zealand: The Polynesian Society.

Walter, R. & Reilly, M.P.J. (2010). A Prehistory of the Mangaian Chiefdom. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 119 (4), 335-375. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23044944.