Also known as: Gambier Islands

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1805-1830)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 418-427
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 418-427
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 405-507, 505-506
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 424-425
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 418-427

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 423

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 502
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 502, 504
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 307
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of worship (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 425

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 423

Classes of Tapu

Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 161
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 152

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984), pp. 146
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984), pp. 146
Buck (1971), pp. 418-507
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 418-507, 187-194
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 483
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 150

Rites

Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 169-182
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 125-126
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 169-182
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 176-177
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 169-182
Social Environment +
Population 1500 (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 11
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 11, 151
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 135-136
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 133-134
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 135

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 187
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 187-194
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 20-99
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 174.5 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of French Polynesia) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 10611.4 (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 3-4
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 96-97
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 96-99, 194-195
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 194-198
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 204-215
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 194-198
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 197-199

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 197, 289-303
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 197, 289-303
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 197-198

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 165
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 3

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -23.1 (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 3
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -135.0 (Source)
Buck (1971)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Gambier Islands) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 15.4 (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 3
Thibauld & Bretagnolle (1999), pp. 100
Maximum elevation (meters) 441.0 (Source)
Thibauld & Bretagnolle (1999), pp. 3
Post Contact History(1830-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 98-99
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 98-99
Henningham (1992), pp. 16, 140
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Buck (1971), pp. 98-99
Secular History +

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Gambier Islands) (2014)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Air travel Absent (Source)
Dupon (1984), pp. 34
Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014)
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 176
Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014)

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign education systems High (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Buck, P. (1928). Fishing Poisoning in Rarotonga, Hora. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 37 (1), 145, 57-66. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20702180.

Buck, P. (1971). Ethnology of Mangareva. Honolulu, HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum. (Originally Published 1938)

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dupon, J. (1984). "Where the Exception Confirms the Rule: The Cyclones of 1982- 1983 in French Polynesia". Disasters, 8 (1), 34-47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.1984.tb00851.x

Encyclopaedia Britannica (French Polynesia) (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219285/French-Polynesia.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Gambier Islands) (2014). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/224821/Gambier-Islands

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Henningham, S. (1992). France and the South Pacific: A Contemporary History. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

McArthur, N. (1967). Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

SIL International. (2014). Map of French Polynesia https://www.ethnologue.com/map/PF

Sahlins, M. D. (1958). Social stratification in Polynesia. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press

Thibauld, J. & Bretagnolle, V. (1999). "Breeding Seabirds of Gambier Islands, Eastern Polynesia: Numbers and Changes during the 20th Century". Emu, 99 (2), 100-107. Retrieved from http://www.publish.csiro.au.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/?paper=MU99013