Manggarai is the name given to a region in western Flores, to the people inhabiting this area, and to their language. Prior to the advent of Christianity, the Manggarai practiced a religion based on ancestral spirits. A supreme being was present in Manggarai religion, but was believed to involve himself in human affairs only rarely.

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Traditional Culture(1880-1905)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Erb (1987), pp. 125-126
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 124-128
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Erb (1987), pp. 125, 150-151
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 150-167
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 123-263, 124-125, 126-128

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 171

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 511-512
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 531-532
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 61-122, 74, 81, 86-88
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 89
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 94-106, 112, 62-163, 166

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Erb (1987), pp. 80-81

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 472-474
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 729
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 41-52

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 260-261
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 260-261
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 527-528, 530-531
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 81-83
Erb (1987), pp. 609-610
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 41-45
Social Environment +
Population 170000 (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 12, 49-50
Koentjaraningrat (1972), pp. 81
Population of largest political community 10,000-99,999 (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 82
Erb (1997), pp. 53
Erb (1987), pp. 12, 49-50
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 82
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972), pp. 82
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 82
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 82

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Erb (1997), pp. 50-51
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Erb (1997), pp. 51
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Erb (1997), pp. 50-51
Erb (1987), pp. 7
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku) (2014)
Erb (1987), pp. 7
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 2048.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Erb (1997), pp. 48
Islamic influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 83
Erb (1997), pp. 49
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 81
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 81
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 6-8
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Manggarai) (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -8.6 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.3 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Island Size (km²) 13500.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Maximum elevation (meters) 2400.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Post Contact History(1905-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Kartomi (2001b), pp. 64
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Allerton (2009), pp. 273
Erb (1987), pp. 39
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Allerton (2009), pp. 273

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Allerton (2009)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 41, 46-47

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Manggarai) (2014)
Kartomi (2001b), pp. 70
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Manggarai) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Erb (1987), pp. 39, 40
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972B), pp. 81
Erb (1987), pp. 38-41
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Allerton (2009), pp. 277-278
Kartomi (2001b), pp. 68
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Allerton (2009), pp. 273
External Links
References
Allerton, C. (2009). Static crosses and working spirits: Anti-Syncretism and Agricultural Animism in Catholic West Flores. Anthropological Forum: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Comparative Sociology, 19 (3), 271-287. DOI:10.1080/00664670903278403

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Manggarai). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/361979/Manggarai.

Erb, M. (1987). When rocks were young and earth was soft: Ritual and mythology in Northeastern Manggarai (Unpublished PhD Thesis). State University of New York, New York.

Erb, M. (1997). Contested time and place: Constructions of history in Todo, Manggarai (Western Flores, Indonesia). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 28(1), 47-77. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022463400015174.

Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku). (2014). Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/ID_nt_

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Kartomi, M. (2001b). [Music culture of central, western and eastern Manggarai (western Flores)] Part 2: Change in Manggarai music and ritual in the twentieth century. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs, 35(2), 61-98. Retreived from http://search.informit.com.au/fullText;dn=200204983;res=IELAPA.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Koentjaraningrat. (1972). Badui. In Lebar, F. (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Volume 1 Indonesia, Andaman Islands and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Koentjaraningrat. (1972). Tanimbar. In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Vol.I, pp 112-114). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Koentjaraningrat. (1972B). Manggarai. In Lebar, F.M., Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Volume I: Indonesia, Andaman Islands and Madagascar). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Morwood, M. J., Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E. W., Jatmiko, Hobbs, D. R., & Westaway, K. E. (2009). Preface: Research at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Journal of Human Evolution, 57(5), 437-449. DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.07.003