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Traditional Culture(1825-1850)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 207, 215
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 215
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 205-207

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 207

Afterlife and Creation

Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 21

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 207, 209-210

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 207
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 195-196, 205-217
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 210
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 47-48
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 209

Rites

Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 37-43, 136-138
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 37-43, 136-138
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 37-43, 136-138
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 138
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 37-43, 136-138
Social Environment +
Population 1200 (Source)
McArthur (1967), pp. 186-187
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
McArthur (1967), pp. 186-187
Buck (1932), pp. 43-48
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 29
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 29
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Hays (1991G), pp. 172
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Hays (1991G), pp. 172

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 194
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 194
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 194
Cultural Isolation +
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 356.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7905.8 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 8
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-84
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-84, 90
Land-based gathering Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-97
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-84
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-84

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83, 158-163
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83, 158-163
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 90-91

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 83-146
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Two (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 4

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -10.4 (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 4
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -161.0 (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 4
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 4
Island Size (kmĀ²) 5.4 (Source)
Buck (1932), pp. 4
Lawrence (1995), pp. 14
Maximum elevation (meters) 3.0 (Source)
Lawrence (1995), pp. 14
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Buck, P. (1928). Fishing Poisoning in Rarotonga, Hora. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 37 (1), 145, 57-66. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20702180.

Buck, P.H. (1932). Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved from http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BucMani.html

Codrington, R.H. (1891). The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folk-lore. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/136057/Cook-Islands.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hays, T.E. (1991G). "Manihiki". In T.E. Hays (Ed.) Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 172-173). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Lawrence, H.R. (1995). Music, Music-Making and the Concept of Henua in an Atoll Environment. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 27, 13-22. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/768100

McArthur, N. (1967). Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.