Mare is one of the Loyalty Islands north of New Caledonia. What little is known of religion on Mare suggest an ancestor cult. Ancestors were venerated through objects connected with the deceased, such as fingernails.

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Traditional Culture(1815-1840)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295-296
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1981), pp. 7
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
God(s) Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Gill (1856), pp. 171

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Gill (1856), pp. 177
Dubois (1984), pp. 310

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living do not affect the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 282-284, 287-342
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died do not affect nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 282-284, 287-342
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 308
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 308
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Dubois (1981)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Gill (1856), pp. 173
Dubois (1984), pp. 322

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 29

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295-297
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 255
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295-297
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 255
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 21-38
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Gill (1856), pp. 173
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 231, 327

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 101
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 55
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 267
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 103, 272
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92
Social Environment +
Population 4300 (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 7
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Dubois (1977), pp. 6-7
Howe (1977), pp. 7
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9-10
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9-10
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 21-38
Dubois (1984), pp. 254-262
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21
Howe (1974), pp. 24-26
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21
Dubois (1984), pp. 247
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 15.7 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of New Caledonia) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7343.1 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Ray (1917), pp. 243
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 164-167
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 161-162
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-158
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 161
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-158
Howe (1977), pp. 7

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-165

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-165, 247
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of New Caledonia) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -21.5 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of New Caledonia) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 168.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of New Caledonia) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 3
Island Size (km²) 642.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mare Island) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 138.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mare Island) (2014)
Post Contact History(1840-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Angleviel & Levine (2008), pp. 51-52
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Angleviel & Levine (2008), pp. 51-52
Howe (1977), pp. 21-22, 27-28
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Kohler (1980), pp. 9-10
Angleviel & Levine (2008), pp. 51-52
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia) (2013)
Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia) (2013)
Ember & Ember (2001), pp. 1583-1589
Immigration Absent (Source)
Haberkorn (2008), pp. 122
Language shift Low (Source)
Ethnologue (Nengone) (2014)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 40

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Ember & Ember (2001), pp. 1583-1589
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mare Island) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 216
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 215

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 71-78
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Loyalty Islands) (2014)
Howe (1977), pp. 75-78
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 215
External Links
References
Angleviel, F. & Levine, S. (Eds.) (2008). New Zealand-New Caledonia: Neighbours, Friends, Partners. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia). (2013). The World Factbook: New Caledonia. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nc.html

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dubois, M. J. (1984). Gens de Maré. Paris, France: Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen

Dubois, M.J. (1977). Les chefferies de Mare (Nouvelle-Calédonie). Paris, France: Libirarie Honore Champion.

Dubois, M.J. (1981). Histoire resumee de Maré : Iles Loyaute. Nouméa: Publications de la Société d’Etudes Historiques de la Nouvelle Calédonie

Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (Eds.) (2001). Countries and their Cultures Volume 1. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Loyalty Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/350116/Loyalty-Islands

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mare Island). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/364459/Mare-Island

Encyclopaedia Britannica (New Caledonia). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/411221/New-Caledonia

Ethnologue (Map of New Caledonia). (2014). Map of New Caledonia. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/NC.

Ethnologue (Nengone). (2014). Nengone: A language of New Caledonia. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/nen

Gill, W. (1856). Gems from the coral islands. Gisborne, New Zealand: Te Rau Herald Print

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Guiart, J. (1952). L’organisation sociale et politique traditionnelle a Maré. Nouméa: Institut Français d’Océanie

Haberkorn, G. (2008). Pacific Islands’ population and development : Facts, fictions and follies. New Zealand Population Review, 33, 95-127. http://www.population.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/nzpr-vol-33-and-34_gerald-haberkorn.pdf

Howe, K. R. (1974). Firearms and indigenous warfare: A case study. The Journal of Pacific History, 9(1), 21-38. DOI: 10.1080/00223347408572242

Howe, K. R. (1977). The Loyalty Islands: A history of culture contacts 1840-1900. Honolulu, HI: The University Press of Hawaii

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Kohler, J. M. (1980). Le christianisme en Nouvelle-Caledonie et aux Iles Loyaute. Nouméa : Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer

Logan, L., & Cole, G. (2001). New Caledonia. London, UK: Lonely Planet

Ray, S. H. (1917). The people and language of Lifu, Loyalty Islands. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 47, 239-322. DOI: 10.2307/2843343