Mare is one of the Loyalty Islands north of New Caledonia. What little is known of religion on Mare suggest an ancestor cult. Ancestors were venerated through objects connected with the deceased, such as fingernails.

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Traditional Culture(1840)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Gill (1856), pp. 177
Dubois (1984), pp. 310

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 293
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 293, 295
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 308
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 308
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Dubois (1981)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 322

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 29

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295-297
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 255
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 295-297
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 255
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 21-38
Largest religious community Whole society or larger (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 287-342
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 231, 327

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 267
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 101
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 25-92, 103, 272
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 55
Social Environment +
Population 4000 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 21
Howe (1977), pp. 7
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 16, 21
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9-10
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9-10
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 71-72
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 9

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 21-38
Dubois (1984), pp. 254-262
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21
Howe (1974), pp. 24-26
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21
Dubois (1984), pp. 247
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 47.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 1566.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 164-167
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 161-162
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-158
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 161
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-158
Howe (1977), pp. 7

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 8
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-165

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 123-165, 247
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 12-13

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 13
Island Size (km²) 650.0 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 12
Maximum elevation (meters) 138.0 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 13

Location

Latitude -21.5 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 12
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 168.0 (Source)
Dubois (1984), pp. 12
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1840-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 19
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Howe (1977), pp. 21-34
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia) (2013)
Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia) (2013)
Ember & Ember (2001), pp. 1583-1589
Immigration Absent (Source)
Haberkorn (2008), pp. 122
Language shift Low (Source)
Eberhard (2020)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 40

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Ember & Ember (2001), pp. 1583-1589
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
'Mare Island' (2008)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 216
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 215

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Howe (1974), pp. 71-78
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
'Loyalty Islands' (2013)
Howe (1977), pp. 75-78
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Logan & Cole (2001), pp. 215
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Central Intelligence Agency (New Caledonia). (2013). The World Factbook: New Caledonia. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nc.html

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Dubois, M. J. (1984). Gens de Maré. Paris, France: Centre Universitaire Méditerranéen

Dubois, M.J. (1981). Histoire resumee de Maré : Iles Loyaute. Nouméa: Publications de la Société d’Etudes Historiques de la Nouvelle Calédonie

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (23rd ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com

Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (Eds.) (2001). Countries and their Cultures Volume 1. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Gems from coral islands; or, incidents of contrast between savage and Christian life of the South Sea Islanders (Vol. II: Eastern Polynesia: Comprising the Rarotonga Group, Penrhyn Islands and Savage Island. London, U.K.: Ward & Co. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/gemsfromcoralis00unkngoog/mode/1up

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Guiart, J. (1952). L’organisation sociale et politique traditionnelle a Maré. Nouméa: Institut Français d’Océanie

Haberkorn, G. (2008). Pacific Islands’ population and development : Facts, fictions and follies. New Zealand Population Review, 33, 95-127. http://www.population.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/nzpr-vol-33-and-34_gerald-haberkorn.pdf

Howe, K. R. (1974). Firearms and indigenous warfare: A case study. The Journal of Pacific History, 9(1), 21-38. DOI: 10.1080/00223347408572242

Howe, K. R. (1977). The Loyalty Islands: A history of culture contacts 1840-1900. Honolulu, HI: The University Press of Hawaii

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Logan, L., & Cole, G. (2001). New Caledonia. London, UK: Lonely Planet

Loyalty Islands (2013). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Loyalty-Islands

Maré Island (2008). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved https://www.britannica.com/place/Mare-Island.

Shineberg, D.L. and Foster, S. (2020). New Caledonia. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/New-Caledonia-French-unique-collectivity-Pacific-Ocean.