Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1790-1815)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 35-38
Schouten (1998), pp. 17-38
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 37
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 17-38, 29
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 35-38
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 29
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 37
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 37-38

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 37

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 24
Wigboldus (1987), pp. 87
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 24, 29
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 36-37
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 35-37
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 17-38, 21
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 35-38

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 35

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 28


Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 28, 108
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 23, 29
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 19
Weichart (2004), pp. 57
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 22, 28


Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 27
Social Environment +
Population 90000 (Source)
Henley (1996), pp. 39
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 23
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 19
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126


Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 67, 83
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 11, 19, 43
Lebar (1972), pp. 127
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 55
Lebar (1972), pp. 127
Schouten (1998), pp. 50-51
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 17, 39
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 55
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 55
Schouten (1998), pp. 17
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 2043.7 (Source)
Henley (1996), pp. Map 3
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Henley (1996), pp. 23
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Wigboldus (1987), pp. 90
Henley (1996), pp. 23
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 36
Schouten (1998), pp. 40
Wigboldus (1987), pp. 88-89
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Lebar (1999), pp. 126
Schouten (1998), pp. 20
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 29
Schouten (1998), pp. 20-21

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 21
Lebar (1972), pp. 126

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Henley (1996), pp. 24
Metalworking Present (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 126
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 16-17, 19, 21

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 1.3 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Schouten (1998), pp. 14
Longitude 124.9 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Schouten (1998), pp. 14
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Charlton (2000), pp. 607
Island Size (km²) 188522.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 3455.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes) (2014)
Post Contact History(1815-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +


Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process, although inroads had already been made with the general population. (Source)
Buchholt & Mai (1994), pp. 14-19
Schouten (1998), pp. 102-110
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 105-125
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Henley (1996), pp. 52-53
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Buchholt & Mai (1994), pp. 5

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Kraatz (2008), pp. 172-173
Schouten (1998), pp. 105-125
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 3, 54-55
Immigration Low (Source)
Weichart (2004), pp. 58
Language shift Medium (Source)
Weichart (2004), pp. 58
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Mai & Buchholt (1987), pp. 22
Henley (1996), pp. 57
Buchholt & Mai (1994), pp. 17-18

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 45
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 166

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 40-51
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Schouten (1998), pp. 40-51, 54-55

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Lundstrom-Burghoorn (1981), pp. 32-34
Buchholt & Mai (1994), pp. 155
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Kraatz (2008), pp. 172-173
Weichart (2004), pp. 58
External Links
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from

Buchholt, H., & Mai, U. (1994). Continuity, Change and Aspirations: Social and Cultural Life in Minahasa, Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Charlton, T. R. (2000). Tertiary Evolution of the Eastern Indonesia Collision Complex. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18 (5), 603-631. DOI: 10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00049-8

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Celebes). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from

Henley, D. (1996). Nationalism and regionalism in a colonial context. Leiden, Netherlands: KITLV Press.

Henley, D. (2005). Population and the means of subsistence: Explaining the historical demography of Island Southeast Asia, with particular reference to Sulawesi. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 36(3), 337-372. Retrieved from

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156,

Kraatz, A. (2008). From human sacrifice to cigarettes and coke – Change in the sacrificial rituals of the Minahasa in Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia. In E. Stavrianopoulou, A. Michaels, & C. Ambos (Eds.), Transformations in sacrificial practices: From antiquity to modern times: Proceedings of an international colloquium, Heidelberk, 12-14 July 2006. Munster: LIT Verlag Munster.

Lebar, F. (1999). The Material Culture of Truk. New Haven, CA: EHRAF. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale/ehrafe/ (Originally published 1948)

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lundstrom-Burghoorn, W. (1981). Minahasa civilization: A tradition of change. Goteburg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Mai, U., & Buchholt, H. (1987). Peasant pedlars and professional traders: Substance trade in rural markets of Minahasa, Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Schouten, M. J. C. (1998). Leadership and Social Mobility in a Southeast Asian society: Minahasa, 1677-1983. Leiden, Germany: KITLV Press.

Weichart, G. (2004). Minahasa identity: A culinary practice. Antrolopogi Indonesia, Special Volume, 55-74.

Wigboldus, J. S. (1987). A history of Minahasa c. 1615-1680. Archipel, 34(34), 63-101.