The Nage live on the island of Flores in Eastern Indonesia, in the vicinity of the volcano Ebo Lobo.

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Traditional Culture(1906)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 47-217, 65-66, 73, 82, 111-112, 243-268
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 47-217, 111-112, 243-268
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 243-246
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 243
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 195-226

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 246

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 253-259
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 246, 253-59
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 218, 227
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 218, 227
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 47-217, 237, 243, 243-268

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 207

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Forth (2001), pp. 104
Forth (1998), pp. 66

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 261
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 261
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Forth (1991), pp. 263
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 243-244
Largest religious community Larger than a local community, smaller than the society (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 294-295
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 9, 15, 281-282

Rites

Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18
Social Environment +
Population 30000 (Source)
Forth (1994)
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 5
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 5-7, 17
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 5-7, 17
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 17
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 7

Conflict

(No) external warfare Common, at least every five years (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 15, 21
(No) internal warfare Rare or never (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 15, 21
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. Map 1
Distance to nearest continent 761.0 (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. Map 1
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Forth (1998)
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Forth (2001), pp. 15-16
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Erb (1991), pp. 116
Forth (1998)
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Forth (1998), pp. 2
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Forth (1998), pp. 2
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Forth (2001), pp. 16
Forth (1998), pp. 2
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Forth (1998), pp. 2

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Forth (1998), pp. 2

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 2

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Island Size (km²) 13500.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438
Maximum elevation (meters) 2400.0 (Source)
Morwood et al. (2009), pp. 438

Location

Latitude -8.7 (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. xii
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.2 (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. xii
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1906-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18-19
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Forth (2001), pp. 20-21
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18-22
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 85
Forth (1998), pp. 3
Language shift High (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 22-23
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 20, 20-21
Mohamad et al. (2021)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 20-21

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Forth (2001), pp. 17

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 84
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18-19
Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Forth (1998), pp. 18-19
External Links
References
Barnes, R. H. (1972). Ngada. In, Frank M. LeBar, ed., Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Erb, M. (1991). Construction Sacrifice, Rumors and Kidnapping Scares in Manggarai: Further Comparative Notes from Flores. Oceania, 62 (2), 114-126. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40332475

Forth, G. (1981). Rindi: Ethnographic Study of a Traditional Domain in Eastern Sumba (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Forth, G. (1991) Construction Sacrifice and Head-Hunting in Central Flores (Eastern Indonesia): A Comparative Note. Oceania, 61(3), 257-266. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40331218.

Forth, G. (1994). Considerations of 'Keo' as an ethnographic category. Oceania, 64(4), 302-316. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40331402

Forth, G. (1998). Beneath the volcano: religion, cosmology and spirit classification among the Nage of eastern Indonesia. 177. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Forth, G. (2001). Dualism and hierarchy: processes of binary combination in Keo society. Oxford University Press, USA.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Mohamad, G. S., Adam, A. W., Leinbach, T. R., Wolters, O. W., McDivitt, J. F., & Legge, J. D. (2021). Indonesia. In Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Indonesia

Molnar, A. K. (2000). Grandchildren of the Ga‟e Ancestors, Social organization and Cosmology among the Hoga Sara of Flores. Leiden: KITLV Press .

Morwood, M. J., Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E. W., Jatmiko, Hobbs, D. R., & Westaway, K. E. (2009). Preface: Research at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Journal of Human Evolution, 57(5), 437-449. DOI:10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.07.003