Also known as: Santa Cruz islanders

Nendo is the largest of the Santa Cruz islands. The people of Nendo lived in small, autonomous, egalitarian communities. Religion was based on a class of deities called dukna, most of whom were the spirits of culture-hero like beings who lived in the distant past, and some of whom were powerful enough to be considered gods. These beings were embodied in sacred figurines called munga dukna, many of which were collected by missionaries in the early twentieth century.

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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 142-154, 148
O'Ferrall (1904), pp. 223-227, 226
Davenport (2005), pp. 35-94
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
O'Ferrall (1904), pp. 223-227, 224
Graebner (2003), pp. 142-154
Davenport (2005), pp. 35-94
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 37-38
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 35-94
Graebner (2003), pp. 142-154, 144
O'Ferrall (1904), pp. 223-227
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 55, 67-94

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 15

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 140-143
Davenport (2005), pp. 37
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 140-143
Davenport (2005), pp. 37
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 63
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 55-56
Culture hero(es) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 55, 60, 67-94

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 146

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 127-128
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 54-143, 110-111
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 110-111

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 35-54
Graebner (2003), pp. 142-154
O'Ferrall (1904), pp. 23-27
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 35-54
Graebner (2003), pp. 142-154
O'Ferrall (1904), pp. 32-27
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 40
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 292

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 11-12, 136
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 8-35, 128-130
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 32, 128-140
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 32-34, 128-140
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 8-35, 128-130
Social Environment +
Population 3500 (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290, 291
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 291
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 291
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 291
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 291

Conflict

Conflict within communities Endemic (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 292
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290, 291, 292
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Davenport (1964), pp. 59
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 42.5 (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 58
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Yen (1974), pp. 250
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 6391.8 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58-60
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Land-based gathering Minor (Source)
Graebner (2003), pp. 54-63
Yen (1974), pp. 264-265, 272
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58-60
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58-60

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58, 64
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Graebner (2003), pp. 58, 64

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Yen (1974), pp. 276
Graebner (2003), pp. 58
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 65
Google Maps (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -10.7 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Davenport (1964), pp. 65
Longitude 165.9 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Davenport (1964), pp. 65
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 67
Island Size (km²) 506.0 (Source)
Clark & Bedford (2008), pp. 64
Maximum elevation (meters) 550.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Cruz Islands) (2014)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 9, 103
Davenport (1964), pp. 60
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 4, 6
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 60
Boerger (2007), pp. 141-142

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 4-7, 98-99
Davenport (1964), pp. 60
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Davenport (1991), pp. 290
Immigration Absent (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Cruz Islands) (2014)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Boerger (2007), pp. 129, 145-148
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Boerger (2007), pp. 138-139
Central Intelligence Agency (Solomon Islands) (2014)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Atkinson et al (2009), pp. 3
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Boerger (2009), pp. 103
Davenport (1991), pp. 290

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Dunbar et al (2014), pp. 393
Boerger (2009), pp. 102
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Davenport (2005), pp. 5
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 180

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 60
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Davenport (1964), pp. 59-60
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Boerger (2007), pp. 142-143
External Links
References
Atkinson, J.; Bobogare, A.; Fitzgerald, L.; Boaz, L.; Appleyard, B.; Toliau, H.; & Vallely, A. (2009). A Qualitative Study on the Acceptability and Preference of Three Types of Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets in Solomon Islands: Implications for Malaria Elimination. Malaria Journal, 8 (199). DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-119

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Boerger, B.H. (2007). Natqgu Literacy: Capturing Three Domains for Written Language Use. Language Documentation and Conservation, 1 (2), 126-155. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1601/boergernotes.html?sequence=4

Boerger, B.H. (2009). Trees of Santa Cruz Island and their Metaphors. In D. Law (Ed.). Proceedings of SALSA-XVII (Texas Linguistics Forum 53) (pp 100-109). Austin, TX: University of Texas.

Central Intelligence Agency (Solomon Islands). (2014). The World Factbook: The Solomon Islands. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bp.html.

Clark, G.R. & Bedford, S. (2008). Friction Zones in Lapita Colonisation. In G.R. Clark, G.R, S. O'Connor & B.F. Leach, Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, Seafaring and the Archaeology of Maritime Landscapes (pp 59-73). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Davenport, W. (1964). Social Structure of Santa Cruz. In W. Goodenough (Ed.), Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honour of George Peter Murdock (pp 57-93). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Davenport, W. (1969). Social organization notes on the Southern Santa Cruz Islands: Utupua and Vanikoro. Baessler-Archiv; Beiträge zur Völkerkunde -- Neue folge band 16 (41 band) Berlin: D. Reimer, 1969. 207-275 p.: ill.

Davenport, W. (2005). Santa Cruz Island Figure Sculpture and its Social and Ritual Contexts. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Davenport, W.H. (1991). "Santa Cruz". In T.E. Hayes, (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 291-292). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Dunbar, P.; Mungov, G.; Kong, L.; McCullough, H.; & Harris, E. (2013). Preliminary 2013 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami Data Report and Historical Retrospective. In Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandino, V.; & Takahashi, T. (Eds.) Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/book/10.1007/978-94-007-7269-4

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Santa Cruz Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522846/Santa-Cruz-Islands

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Graebner, F & Schultz, F. (Trans.). (2003). Ethnography of the Santa Cruz Islands. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/ON13%27%29&docId=on13-001&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP. (Originally Published in 1909)

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

O'Ferrall, W. (1904). Native Stories from Santa Cruz and the Reef Islands. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 34, 223-233. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2843099

Speiser, F. & Schultz, F. (Trans.). (2003). Ethnological Data on the Santa Cruz Islands. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/ON13%27%29&docId=on13-002&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP (Originally published 1916).

Speiser, F. (1990). Ethnology of Vanuatu: an Early Twentieth Century Study. Bathurst, NSW: Crawford House Press. (Originally published 1923).

Yen, D.E. (1974). Arboriculture in the Subsistence of Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands. Economic Botany, 28 (3), 247-284. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4253511