Also known as: Gela

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Traditional Culture(1838-1863)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 124
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 124
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 124-125, 254
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 20-45, 116-144
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 124

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 127, 134

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 255-256
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 255-256
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 116-127, 365-373
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 116-127, 365-373
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 116-127, 365-373

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 134

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 215-216
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 116-127, 290-331

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Keesing (1984)
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 116-127
Mana and social status Tightly coupled (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 120
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 346
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 128-144
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 20-58, 116-144
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 46-47, 127

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 228-331
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 228-331
Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 255-256
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 237
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 228-331
Social Environment +
Population 5000 (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 43
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 20-45
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 20-45
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 245

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 32
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Moore (2017), pp. 32
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 25.0 (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 32
Distance to nearest continent 1729.0 (Source)
Moore (2017), pp. 32
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Moore (2017), pp. 28
Subsistence and Economy +
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 313-316
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 16

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 13
Island Size (km²) 218.0 (Source)
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 400.0 (Source)
Diamond & Mayr (1976)

Location

Latitude -9.1 (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 16
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 160.2 (Source)
Codrington (1891), pp. 16
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1863-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process, although inroads had already been made with the general population. (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 34-36
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 34-36
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 34-36
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 34-36

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 27-69
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 36-37

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 27-69
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Moore (2017), pp. 27-69

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 41-42

Modern Infrastructure

Sea port Present (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 31-32
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Moore (2019), pp. 41
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Codrington, R.H. (1891). The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folk-lore. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Diamond, J. M., & Mayr, E. (1976). Species-area relation for birds of the Solomon Archipelago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 73(1), 262-266.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Moore, C. (2017). Making Mala: Malaita in the Solomon Islands 1870s-1930s. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Moore, C. (2019). Tulagi: Pacific outpost of British empire. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.