Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 199-200
Warren (1964), pp. 83, 98-112
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 103-107
Eder (1997), pp. 16-18
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 98-112
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 103-107

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 101

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 6, 7-8
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 6, 7-8
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 113-116
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 113-116
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 98-112, 113-116

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 200

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 69
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Eder (1997), pp. v, 16-18

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 98-112
Lebar (1975), pp. 69
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 98-112
Eder (1987), pp. 199-200
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 83, 99-100
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 98

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 36-37, 58-82
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 33-38, 58-82
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 33-38
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 34
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 33-38, 58-82
Social Environment +
Population 700 (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 22
Population of largest political community 99 or fewer (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 29-31
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Warren (1975B), pp. 69
Eder (1987), pp. 29-30
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Warren (1975B), pp. 69
Eder (1987), pp. 29-30
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 69
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 69

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 151
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 151
Lebar (1975), pp. 69
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 151-152
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 26
Eder (1987), pp. 45-51
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 26
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1080.8 (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. ii (map)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Warren (1964), pp. 100
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 21
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 26, 113-115
Eder (1987), pp. 45-51
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 83
Agriculture / Horticulture Minor (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 3-24, 51
Eder (1987), pp. 45-46
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 43-46
Eder (1987), pp. 41, 44
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 47
Eder (1987), pp. 38-40, 44
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 43-46
Eder (1987), pp. 41-43

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 40-41
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 41
Warren (1964), pp. 46
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 40
Warren (1964), pp. 46

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 45-51
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. 25

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 10.1 (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. ii (map)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 119.1 (Source)
Warren (1964), pp. ii (map)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 216-217
Island Size (km²) 11785.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2085.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan) (2014), pp. 24
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Boissiere & Liswanti (2006), pp. 7
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 168-169
Novellino (2009), pp. 205
Immigration High (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 60
Novellino (2009), pp. 205
Foreign education systems Medium (Source)
Boissiere & Liswanti (2006), pp. 7-8

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Novellino (2009), pp. 205
Eder (1987), pp. 52-102
Boissiere & Liswanti (2006), pp. 8
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 71

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 60, 168-169
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Eder (1987), pp. 168-169
Novellino (2009), pp. 205
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Boissiere & Liswanti (2006), pp. 7
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Boissière, M. & Liswanti, N. (2006). Biodiversity in a Batak village of Palawan (Philippines): A Multidisciplinary Assessment of Local Perceptions and Priorities. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Retrieved from http://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/20474

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Eder, J. F. (1997). Batak resource management: Belief, knowledge, and practice. Switzerland: IUCN.

Eder, J. R. (1987). On the Road to Tribal Extinction: Depopulation, Deculturation, and Adaptive Well-Being Among the Batak of the Philippines. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/439297/Palawan

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Novellino, D. (2009). From museum collections to field research. Indonesia and the Malay World, 37(108), 203-224. DOI: 10.1080/13639810902979404.

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Southern Philippines [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_s

Warren, C. P. (1964). The Batak of Palawan: A culture in transition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago

Warren, C.P. (1975A). Tagbanuwa. In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Vol. II, pp 64-67). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Warren, C.P. (1975B). "Batak". In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa) (pp 68-70). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.