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Traditional Culture(1830-1855)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308-338
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 313
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308-338, 333, 336-337
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308, 310, 313-314
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 314, 336

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 326
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 301
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 375-411, 375-377
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308-317

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 311-312

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 227
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 32, 309-310
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 150

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 308-338, 373-374
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 336
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 234, 237
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 233-246, 321-325

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 155, 263-305
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 279
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 153-157, 263-305
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 153
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 153-157, 263-305
Social Environment +
Population 500 (Source)
Borofsky (1991), pp. 270
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 12
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 12, 234
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 219
Borofsky (1991), pp. 272
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 219
Borofsky (1991), pp. 171
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Borofsky (1991), pp. 271
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Borofsky (1991), pp. 272

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 373-374
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 373-374
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 373
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5, 375-410, 393-394, 400-410
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 525.4 (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17, 384-385
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7765.7 (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 104-107
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 25, 95, 81-83, 99, 104
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 81-83, 99, 104
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 104-107
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 104-107

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 48-49, 55-70, 95
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 95, 104
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 48, 54-59, 95

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 90-91
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17, 384-385

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -10.9 (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -165.8 (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 17
Island Size (km²) 1.3 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Pukapuka Atoll) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 30.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Pukapuka Atoll) (2014)
Post Contact History(1855-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Salisbury (2012)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Salisbury (2012), pp. 491-492
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Borofsky (1991), pp. 272
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5-6, 270
Language shift Medium (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 6
Ethnologue (Pukapuka) (2014)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present but rarely used (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands) (2014)
Sea port Absent (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5-6
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Beaglehole (1938), pp. 5-6
Borofsky (1991), pp. 270
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands) (2014)
External Links
References
Beaglehole, E.P. (1938). Ethnology of Pukapuka. Honolulu: HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Borofsky, R. (1991). Pukapuka. In T.E. Hays, (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 270-273). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Codrington, R.H. (1891). The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folk-lore. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Cook Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/136057/Cook-Islands.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Pukapuka Atoll). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/483038/Pukapuka-Atoll

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

McArthur, N. (1967). Island Populations of the Pacific. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

SIL International. (2014). "Pukapuka". Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/pkp

Salisbury, K. (2012). Manuscript XXV: 'The Arrival of the Word of God to Pukapuka'. The Journal of Pacific History, 47: 4, 491-513. DOI: 10.1080/00223344.2012.733067