Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1870-1895)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 50, 52
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 50-51
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 125
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 51, 52, 187-190
Lebar (1975), pp. 125
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 125
Baldick (2013), pp. 39
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 49

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 175-176, 193

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 51-52
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 166, 173
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 28
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 28-29, 234-235
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 125

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 65

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 89-90, 148
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 19-37, 49-71, 84-152, 196-224
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 19-37, 49-71, 84-152

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 139, 141, 149-152
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 50
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 57, 65
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 126

Rites

Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
Cauquelin (2004)
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Cauquelin (2004)
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Cauquelin (2004)
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 32
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Cauquelin (2004)
Baldick (2013), pp. 20-21
Social Environment +
Population 4000 (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 17, 142
Lebar (1972), pp. 123
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Schroder (1966), pp. 268, 278
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Strouthes (1993A), pp. 257
Importance of Matrilateral descent High (Source)
Strouthes (1993A), pp. 257
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 124
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 124
Strouthes (1993A), pp. 257

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 130, 147-148
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 2, 26-27, 34
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 34
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 17, 28-36
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 37
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 318.8 (Source)
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 37
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Blust (1996), pp. 125-128
Trejaut et al (2005), pp. 1362
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 46, 153
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 5
Manthorpe (2005), pp. 104
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Major (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 216-217
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 203-204
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 209
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 203-204
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 196, 209-212

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 207
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 207
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 207

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 203-217
Metalworking Present (Source)
Taylor (1889), pp. 229
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 37

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 22.8 (Source)
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 37
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.1 (Source)
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 37
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Sun et al (2000), pp. 302
Island Size (km²) 32260.0 (Source)
Ding et al (2005), pp. 300
Maximum elevation (meters) 3952.0 (Source)
Ding et al (2005), pp. 300
Post Contact History(1895-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 68-70
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 68
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 125
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 68

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 68-70
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 5-11, 7, 14, 17-18, 105-110
Immigration High (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 5
Language shift High (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 11-12
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 207

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 7-8
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 7-8

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Huteson (2003), pp. 6
Air travel Present and long-distance (Source)
Wang et al (2004), pp. 353
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 184
Huteson (2003), pp. 6

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 5-11, 14, 17-18, 105-110
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Cauquelin (2004), pp. 68
External Links
References
Baldick, J. (2013) Ancient Religions of the Austronesian World: From Australasia to Taiwan. London, UK: I.B. Tauris.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (1996). Beyond the Austronesian Homeland: The Austric Hypothesis and its Implications for Archaeology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 117-158. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006623.

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cauquelin, J. (2004). The Aborigines of Taiwan: The Puyuma: From Headhunting to the Modern World. London, U.K.: Routledge.

Chang, K. & Goodenough, W.H. (1996). Archaeology of Southeastern Coastal China and its Bearing on the Austronesian Homeland. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 36-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006620

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Ding, T., Yuan, H., Geng, S., Lin, Y. & Li, P. (2005). Energy flux, Body Size and Density in Relation to Bird Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in Taiwan. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14 (4), 299-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-822X.2005.00159.x

Ethnologue (Map of Taiwan). (2014). Map of Taiwan. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/TW

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Huteson, G. (2003). Report on Language Proficiency, Language Use, and Language Attitudes among the Puyuma. Dallas, TX: SIL International.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Manthorpe, J. (2005). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Schroder, D. (1966). Die Puyuma von Katipol (Taiwan) und ihre Religion: Ein Kurzbericht aus dem Felde. Anthropos, 61 (1-2), 267-293. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40458239.

Strouthes, D. (1993A). Taiwan Aboriginal Peoples. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (pp 256-258). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Sun, X., Li, X., Luo, Y., & Chen, X. (2000). The Vegetation and Climate at the Last Glaciation on the Emerged Continental Shelf of the South China Sea. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 160 (3-4), 301-316. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00078-X

Taylor, G. (1889). Formosa: Characteristic traits of the island and its aboriginal inhabitants. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, 11(4), 224-239. DOI: 10.2307/1801165.

Trejaut, J. A., Kivisild, T., Loo, J. H., Lee, C. L., He, C. L., Hsu, C. J., … & Lin, M. (2005). Traces of Archaic Mitochondrial Lineages Persist in Austronesian-Speaking Formosan Populations. PLoS Biology, 3 (8), 1362-1372. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030247.

Wang, R., Ho, C., Feng, C., & Yang, Y. (2004). A Comparative Analysis of the Operational Performance of Taiwan's Major Airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 10 (5), 353-360. DOI: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2004.05.005