Also known as: Redjang

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Traditional Culture(1760-1785)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan (1967), pp. 493
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 254
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 250-252
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 5, 7
Marsden (1784), pp. 252
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 250-252

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 10
Jaspan (1967), pp. 479

Afterlife and Creation

Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 5-6

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 8, 9

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Boerger (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 34
Marsden (1784), pp. 249-259
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33, 34

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 47
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47, 248
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Social Environment +
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 32, 33-34
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 32, 33-34
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 31, 34
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 34
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 518.9 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Jaspan (1967), pp. 486
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 5
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 259
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 5
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Major (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56, 94
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 96-97
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 58
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 97, 100, 149
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56, 59, 72

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 144
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 144
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 140-158
Metalworking Present (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 143-144
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra) (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -3.4 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 102.8 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf) (2014)
Island Size (kmĀ²) 480793.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sumatra) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 3800.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sumatra) (2014)
Post Contact History(1785-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 95-96
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 95-96
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 34
Role of social status in conversion process Mixed / Neither (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 95-96
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7, 12
Immigration Low (Source)
Znoj (1998), pp. 197
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ethnologue (Rejang) (2014)
Birt (2008), pp. 67
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Nelson (1995), pp. 214

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 92-94, 139
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 158
Birt (2008), pp. 139

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7
Birt (2008), pp. 142

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Znoj (1998), pp. 202
Nelson (1995), pp. 199
Birt (2008), pp. 164
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 71
Nelson (1995), pp. 201
Institutional religious syncretism Low (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 51, 71
Dominant world religion Islam (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Rejang) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Birt, J. (2008). The Rejang of Sumatra: Exploring Culture Through Literary Journalism (Masters Thesis). Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Boerger, B.H. (2007). Natqgu Literacy: Capturing Three Domains for Written Language Use. Language Documentation and Conservation, 1 (2), 126-155. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1601/boergernotes.html?sequence=4

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Rejang). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/496747/Rejang

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sumatra). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573120/Sumatra

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sunda Shelf). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573755/Sunda-Shelf

Ethnologue (Map of Sumatra). (2014). Map of Indonesia, Sumatra. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/ID_sm_

Ethnologue (Rejang). (2014). Rejang: A language of Indonesia. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/rej

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Jaspan, M. A., & King, V. T. (1981). The Rejang of south-west Sumatra: Notes on social organization. Indonesia Circle School of Oriental & African Studies, 9(24), 3-14. DOI: 10.1080/03062848108723816.

Jaspan, M.A. (1964). "A Note on Enggano". Man, 64, 109-113. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2797362

Jaspan, M.A. (1967). Symbols at Work: Aspects of Kinetic and Mnemonic Representation in Redjang Ritual. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 123 (4), 476-516. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27860897

Jaspan, M.A. (1972). Pasemah. In Lebar, F. (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands and Madagascar (34-35). New Haven, CT: Human Resources Area Files.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Marsden, W. (1784). The history of Sumatra: Containing an account of the government, laws, customs and manners of the native inhabitants, with a description of the natural productions, and a relation of the ancient political state of that island. London, UK: McGreery & Black Horse Court.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Nelson, E. (1995). Gendered possession and communication among the Rejang of Sumatra. Indonesia Circle School of Oriental & African Studies, 23(67), 199-215. DOI: 10.1080/03062849508729850.

Znoj, H. (1998). Hot Money and War Debts: Transactional Regimes in Southwestern Sumatra. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 40 (2), 193-222. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/179412.