Also known as: Redjang

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Traditional Culture(1771)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 77
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 254
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan (1964)
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 54
Marsden (1784), pp. 252
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 250-252
Jaspan (1964)

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 19, 54, 125

Afterlife and Creation

Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 5-6

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 8, 9

Mana

Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Boerger (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Jaspan (1964)
Marsden (1784)
Largest religious community Whole society or larger (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 109
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Jaspan (1964)

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 47
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 38-47, 248
Social Environment +
Population 50,000 (Source)
Crawfurd (1856), pp. 365
Reid (1987), pp. 36
Population of largest political community 10,000-99,999 (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 172-177
Jaspan (1964), pp. 1-88
Crawfurd (1856), pp. 365
Reid (1987), pp. 36
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Jaspan (1972b), pp. 32, 33-34
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Jaspan (1972b), pp. 32, 33-34
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Jaspan (1972b), pp. 33
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Jaspan (1972b), pp. 33

Conflict

(No) external warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 259
Jaspan (1972b), pp. 33-34
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 259
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 33
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 1
Distance to nearest continent 518.9 (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 1
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 77, 147
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 76, 78
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Jaspan (1964)
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Major (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56, 94
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158, 58
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56, 59, 72
Jaspan (1964), pp. 58

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 9
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 9
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 56-158

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 9
Marsden (1784), pp. 140-158
Metalworking Present (Source)
Marsden (1784), pp. 143-144
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 1

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
'Sunda Shelf' (2016)
Island Size (kmĀ²) 480793.0 (Source)
'Sumatra' (2017)
Maximum elevation (meters) 3800.0 (Source)
'Sumatra' (2017)

Location

Latitude -3.4 (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 11-12
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 102.8 (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 11-12
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1771-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Mixed / Neither (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 66, 75
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 66, 75
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 75
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 66, 75

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Jaspan (1964)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7, 12
Immigration Low (Source)
Znoj (1998), pp. 197
Language shift Medium (Source)
Eberhard (2020)
Birt (2008), pp. 67
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Nelson (1995), pp. 214

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 92-94, 139
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 158
Birt (2008), pp. 139

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 51
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Jaspan (1964), pp. 51
Jaspan & King (1981), pp. 7

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Znoj (1998), pp. 202
Nelson (1995), pp. 199
Birt (2008), pp. 164
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 71
Nelson (1995), pp. 201
Institutional religious syncretism Low (Source)
Birt (2008), pp. 51, 71
Dominant world religion Islam (Source)
'Rejang' (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Birt, J. (2008). The Rejang of Sumatra: Exploring Culture Through Literary Journalism (Masters Thesis). Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Boerger, B.H. (2007). Natqgu Literacy: Capturing Three Domains for Written Language Use. Language Documentation and Conservation, 1 (2), 126-155. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1601/boergernotes.html?sequence=4

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Crawfurd, J. (1856). A descriptive dictionary of the Indian Islands and adjacent countries. London, UK: Bradbury & Evans. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/adescriptivedic00crawgoog/page/n304/mode/2up

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (23rd ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Jaspan, M. A. (1964). From patriliny to matriliny: Structural change among the Redjang of southwest Sumatra (Unpublished PhD thesis). Australian National University: Canberra, Australia.

Jaspan, M. A., & King, V. T. (1981). The Rejang of south-west Sumatra: Notes on social organization. Indonesia Circle School of Oriental & African Studies, 9(24), 3-14. DOI: 10.1080/03062848108723816.

Jaspan, M.A. (1972b). Redjang. In Lebar, F.M. (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands and Madagascar) (pp. 31-34). New Haven, CT: Human Resources Area Files.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Marsden, W. (1784). The history of Sumatra: Containing an account of the government, laws, customs and manners of the native inhabitants, with a description of the natural productions, and a relation of the ancient political state of that island (2nd Ed.). London, UK: Thomas Payne & Son. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/historysumatrac01marsgoog/mode/1up

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Nelson, E. (1995). Gendered possession and communication among the Rejang of Sumatra. Indonesia Circle School of Oriental & African Studies, 23(67), 199-215. DOI: 10.1080/03062849508729850.

Reid, A. (1987). Low population growth and its causes in pre-colonial Southeast Asia. In N. G. Owen (Ed.), Death and disease in Southeast Asia: Explorations in social, medical and demographic history (pp. 33-47). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Rejang (2014). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Rejang.

Sumatra (2017). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Sumatra.

Sunda Shelf (2016). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Sunda-Shelf.

Znoj, H. (1998). Hot Money and War Debts: Transactional Regimes in Southwestern Sumatra. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 40 (2), 193-222. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/179412.