Also known as: Rotuman

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Traditional Culture(1839)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Largest religious community Whole society or larger (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Social Environment +
Population 4500 (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 282
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 282
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 282
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Gardiner (1898b)

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 283
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 281
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 198.0 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 1799.0 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 281
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Gardiner (1898b)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Island Size (km²) 44.0 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Maximum elevation (meters) 260.0 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280

Location

Latitude -12.5 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 177.1 (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 280
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(?)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Gardiner (1898a)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 283
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 282

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 281

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 281
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Howard (1991), pp. 282
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Gardiner, J. S. (1898a). The Natives of Rotuma. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 27, 396-435. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842839

Gardiner, J. S. (1898b). The natives of Rotuma. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 27, 457-524. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2842771

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Howard, A. (1991). Rotuma. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. II: Oceania) (pp. 280-283). New York, NY: G. K. Hall & Co.