Also known as: Savunese

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Traditional Culture(1835-1860)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1979), pp. 165
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Kana (1980), pp. 229-230
Fox (1977), pp. 85
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 80
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 79-80

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 80

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Kana (1980), pp. 225
Fox (1972), pp. 80
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 80

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Kana (1980), pp. 224, 229-230

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Duggan (2011), pp. 114

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Kana (1980), pp. 229
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 79
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Fox (1979), pp. 163
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 152
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 85-87

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 121
Fox (1972), pp. 80
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 80
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 86, 88, 121, 123
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 86, 88, 121, 123
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 80
Social Environment +
Population 30000 (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 168
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 77, 79
Fox (1977), pp. 168
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78-79
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78-79
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 79
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 79

Conflict

Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Fox (1979), pp. 160-165
Fox (1972), pp. 78-79
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 160-165
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 77.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 2351.7 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 166
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Fox (1977), pp. 166
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Land-based gathering Principal (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 23-24
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Animal husbandry as a source of food Major (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Fox (1977), pp. 35-38, 41-46
Agriculture / Horticulture Major (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 23-24, 29-30
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 77
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 77

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 28
Fox (1979), pp. 152
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 78

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 17-57
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Two (Source)
Fox (1979), pp. 145

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -10.5 (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 5
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 121.9 (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 5
Google Maps (2014)
Island Size (kmĀ²) 697.0 (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 77
Maximum elevation (meters) 250.0 (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 78
Post Contact History(1860-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 165-176
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 166, 172-174
Adoption of a world religion Present and major (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands) (2014)

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Fox (1977), pp. 165-176
Fox (1972), pp. 79
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Fox (1972), pp. 79

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands) (2014)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands) (2014)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Duggan, G. (2011). Commensality and Food Prohibition. Indonesia and the Malay World, 39 (113), 103-122. DOI: 10.1080/13639811.2011.547732

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Sawu Islands). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/525949/Sawu-Islands

Ethnologue (Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku). (2014). Map of Nusa Tenggara and Southern Maluku. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/ID_nt_

Fox, J. J. (1977). Harvest of the Palm: Ecological Change in Eastern Indonesia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fox, J.J (1972). Savunese. In F. Lebar, (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. (pp 77-80). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Fox, J.J. (1979). The Ceremonial System of Savu. In Becker, A.L., Yengoyan, A.A (Eds.), The Imagination of Reality: Essays on Southeast Asian Coherence Systems (pp 145-173). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Kana, N.L. (1980). The Order and Significance of the Savunese House. In Fox, J.J (Ed). The Flow of Life: Essays on Eastern Indonesia (pp 221-231). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.