Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1905)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 70-92
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 70-92
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 153
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 70-92
Frake (1980), pp. 144-165
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 77-80

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 70

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 91-92
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 77-78
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 93-104
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 93-104
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 93-104

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 32

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 88
Christie (1909), pp. 66

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Christie (1909)
Lebar (1975), pp. 34
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 82-83, 91
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 70-92
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Frake (1957), pp. 5
Christie (1909), pp. 84

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27-28
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27-28
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Christie (1909), pp. 52
Social Environment +
Population 26,000 (Source)
U.S. Census Bureau (1905), pp. 400
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 61-62
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Christie (1909), pp. 57
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-32, 61-69
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 34
Christie (1909), pp. 61-69
(No) internal warfare Rare or never (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 34
Christie (1909), pp. 61-69
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Christie (1909), pp. 11-32
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-13
Distance to nearest continent 1484.0 (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-13
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 90
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Christie (1909), pp. 11-32, 70-92
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-32, 70-92
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 33-49
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41, 47-48
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41, 47-48
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 41, 47-48
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41, 48
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 33-49

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 41, 43-46
Metalworking Present (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 42
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-13

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Yumul et al. (2009), pp. 732-733
Island Size (km²) 94630.0 (Source)
'Mindanao' (2016)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2954.0 (Source)
'Mindanao' (2016)

Location

Latitude 7.1 (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-13
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 122.1 (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-13
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1905-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Sali-Ot et al. (2012), pp. 39

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Sali-Ot et al. (2012), pp. 41
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 244

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 11-32
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Christie (1909), pp. 68-69
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Christie, E. B. (1909). The Subanuns of Sindangan Bay. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Finley, J. P., & Churchill, W. (1913). The Subanu: Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk of Mindanao. Washington, D.C: The Carnegie Institute.

Frake, C. O. (1980). Language and cultural description: Essays by Charles O. Frake. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Frake, C.O. (1957). Sindangan Social Groups. Philippine Sociological Review, 5(2), 2-11.

Frake, C.O. (1993). Subanun. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. V, pp 243-246). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Mindanao (2016). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Mindanao.

Sali-Ot, M. A., Suarez, K. G., & Villarmino, G. O. (2012). Cultural practices and beliefs of indigenous people in Dumingag, Zamboanga Del Sur. IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 37-49.

United States Bureau of the Census (1905). Census of the Philippine islands, taken under the direction of the Philippine commission in the year 1903 (Vol. II: Population). Washington, DC: United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusphilippin01ganngoog/mode/1up

Yumul, G., Dimalanta, C., Queaño, K., & Marquez, E. (2009). Philippines, geology. In R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands (pp. 732-738). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.