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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 32
Christie (1909), pp. 86-87, 90
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 32
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 151-153
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 151-153
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 153-154

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 153, 160

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 151-153
Christie (1909), pp. 91-92
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 151
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Brichoux (2002)
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Brichoux (2002)
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Brichoux (2002), pp. 17, 31-37
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 30, 32-38
Frake (1980), pp. 144-163
Christie (1909), pp. 70-92

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 32

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 88
Christie (1909), pp. 66

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Frake (2006), pp. 321
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Frake (1980), pp. 149
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Frake (1980), pp. 153
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Frake (1957), pp. 5
Christie (1909), pp. 84

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27-28
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 27-28
Social Environment +
Population 50000 (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 8
Population of largest political community 99 or fewer (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 24-25
Frake (1957), pp. 4-6
Importance of Patrilateral descent Low (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 22
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Frake (1961), pp. 114
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 22
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 11, 13
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1484.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Christie (1909), pp. 90
Adelaar (1994), pp. 60-61
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Brichoux (2002), pp. 31-37
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 36
Brichoux (2002), pp. 31-37
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 19
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 15, 18

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 21
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 15-21

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 11, 21
Metalworking Present (Source)
Finley & Churchill (1913), pp. 24
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 7.1 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 122.1 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213
Island Size (km²) 94630.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao) (2015)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2954.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao) (2015)
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Sali-Ot et al. (2012), pp. 39

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Sali-Ot et al. (2012), pp. 41
Frake (1993), pp. 244
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 244

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Frake (1993), pp. 245
External Links
References
Adelaar, K. A. (1994). Malay and Javanese Loanwords in Malagasy, Tagalog and Siraya (Formosa). Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 150 (1), 50-66. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27864510.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brichoux, F. (Ed.) (2002). A Voice from Many Rivers: Central Subanen Oral and Written Literature. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Christie, E. B. (1909). The Subanuns of Sindangan Bay. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan.

Concepcion, M. B., & Smith, P. C. (1977). Demographic situation in the Philippines: an assessment in 1977. Honolulu, HI : East-West Center

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Mindanao). (2015). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/383601/Mindanao

Ethnologue (Map of Southern Philippines). (2014). Map of Southern Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_s

Finley, J. P., & Churchill, W. (1913). The Subanu: Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk of Mindanao. Washington, D.C: The Carnegie Institute.

Frake, C. O. (1961). The diagnosis of disease among the Subanun of Mindanao. American Anthropologist, 63(1), 113-132.

Frake, C. O. (1980). Language and cultural description: Essays by Charles O. Frake. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Frake, C.O. (1957). Sindangan Social Groups. Philippine Sociological Review, 5(2), 2-11.

Frake, C.O. (1993). Subanun. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. V, pp 243-246). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Frake, C.O. (2006). The Cultural Construction of Rank, Identity and Ethnic Origins in the Sulu Archipelago. In Fox, J.J. & Sather, C., (Eds.) Origins, Ancestry and Alliance: Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Sali-Ot, M. A., Suarez, K. G., & Villarmino, G. O. (2012). Cultural practices and beliefs of indigenous people in Dumingag, Zamboanga Del Sur. IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 37-49.

Southern Philippines [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_s