Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1900-1925)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 166-171
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 234-237
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 161, 249-250
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 145-247, 249-250
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 148-149

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 161

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 158-159
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 161
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 154
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 145-247
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 145-247

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 154

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 154
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 145-247
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 183-184

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 262
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 12-247
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 206
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 129-131, 146-147, 251
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 207

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 34
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 34-35
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 34-35
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 34-35
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 34-35
Social Environment +
Population 7000 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 13
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 13, 129-131
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 53
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 53
Polygamy Monogamy preferred, but exceptional cases of polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 66
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 66

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 97, 138
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 142-144
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 7, 9, 12-33
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 145
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 6
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1014.4 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 6
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 17, 41, 139, 170
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 25-26, 41, 145-247
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 155
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 5-52, 174
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 49, 173
Land-based gathering Minor (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 5-52, 52
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 49, 173
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 42

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 7, 49
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 7, 49
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 7

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 5-52, 202
Metalworking Present (Source)
Warren (1975A), pp. 65
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 1

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 9.5 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 118.4 (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 216-217
Island Size (km²) 11785.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2085.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan) (2014)
Post Contact History(1925-2014)Expand All +
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 11-12
Dressler (2005), pp. 23
Immigration High (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 11-12
Dressler (2005), pp. 22
Language shift Low (Source)
Ethnologue (Tagbanwa) (2014)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Lacuna-Richman (2004), pp. 271

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Lacuna-Richman (2004), pp. 267, 271
Fox (1982), pp. 5-52
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Dressler (2005), pp. 23

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 25
Sea port Present (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 186

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 17-33
Dressler (2005)
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Fox (1982), pp. 11-12
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Lacuna-Richman (2004), pp. 278
Ethnologue (Tagbanwa) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Dressler, W. (2005). "Disentangling Tagbanua Lifeways, Swidden and Conservation on Palawan Island". Research in Human Ecology, 12 (1), 21-29.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Palawan). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/439297/Palawan

Ethnologue (Tagbanwa). (2014). "Tagbanwa: a Language of the Philippines". Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/language/tbw

Fox, R.B. (1982). Religion and Society Among the Tagbanuwa of Palawan Island, Philippines. Manila, Philippines: National Museum.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lacuna-Richman, C. (2004). "Subsistence Strategies of an Indigenous Minority in the Philippines: Nonwood Forest Product Use by the Tagbanua of Narra, Palawan." Economic Botany, 58 (2), 266-285. DOI: 10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0266:SSOAIM]2.0.CO;2

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9

Southern Philippines [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_s

Warren, C.P. (1975A). Tagbanuwa. In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Vol. II, pp 64-67). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.