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Traditional Culture(1885-1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-106, 107-112, 183
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 86-105
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 114
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 86-105, 87-89
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-106, 107-112
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 114
Ancestral spirits Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 114
McKinnon (1991), pp. 84-93
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 89, 90, 100
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-106, 107-112
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-45, 63, 73-74
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 90

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 114

Afterlife and Creation

Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-62
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically distinct from humans (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 38-62
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 87-89
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 100-101, 104-105

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1987), pp. 87-89

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 260-261
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008), pp. 260-261
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 81-83
McKinnon (1991), pp. 82
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 99
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 73-74

Rites

Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 168, 171
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 81, 89,, 95, 115, 139
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 168, 171
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 81, 89,, 95, 115, 139
Social Environment +
Population 20000 (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 10 (Note 7)
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Van Wouden (1968), pp. 31
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 113
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 113
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 113

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 64
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1995), pp. 81
McKinnon (1991), pp. 7-8
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 113
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 85.7 (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 6
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 2770.6 (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 6
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 113
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 4-7
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 113
Metalworking Present (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 112
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 6

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -7.5 (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 131.5 (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 6
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Van Dijke & Jonge (1987), pp. xii
Island Size (km²) 3263.0 (Source)
Jepson et al (2001), pp. 225
Maximum elevation (meters) 120.0 (Source)
Jepson et al (2001), pp. 226
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Koentjaraningrat (1972A), pp. 114
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 3-12
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 10
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ethnologue (Yamdena) (2014)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 10
Foreign education systems High (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 10

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 8, 10-11

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
McKinnon (1991), pp. 10
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Ethnologue (Yamdena). (2014). Yamdena: A language of Indonesia. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/jmd

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Jepson, P., Brickle, N., & Chayadin, Y. (2001). The Conservation Status of Tanimbar Corella and Blue-Streaked Lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: Results of a Rapid Contextual Survey. Oryx, 35 (3), 244-233. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3008.2001.00179.x

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Kennedy, R. (1943). Islands and Peoples of the Indies. Washington DC: The Smithsonian.

Koentjaraningrat. (1972). Badui. In Lebar, F. (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia: Volume 1 Indonesia, Andaman Islands and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Koentjaraningrat. (1972). Tanimbar. In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Vol.I, pp 112-114). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

McKinnon, S. (1991). From a Shattered Sun: Hierarchy, Gender and Alliance in the Tanimbar Islands. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

McKinnon, S. (2000). The Tanimbarese Tavu: The Ideology of Growth and the Material Configurations of Houses and Hierarchy in an Indonesian Society. In Joyce, R. A. & Gillespie, S. D. (Eds.) Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Van Dijke, T. & De Jonge, N. (1987). The House on the Hill: Moieties and Double Descent in Babar. Bildragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 143 (1), 54-104. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27863806

Van Dijke, T. & Jonge, N. (1995). Forgotten Islands of Indonesia: The Art and Culture of the Southern Moluccas. Singapore: Eric Oley.

Van Wouden, F.A.E. & Needham, R. (Trans.) (1968). Types of Social Structure in Eastern Indonesia. Leiden, Netherlands: Springer Science. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/chapter/10.1007/978-94-015-1076-9_3