Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1865-1890)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 113-182, 115-123
Humphreys (1926), pp. 70-100
Speiser (1990), pp. 318-319
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 113-182, 115
Humphreys (1926), pp. 20-100
Speiser (1990), pp. 318-319
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Speiser (1990), pp. 318-319
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Speiser (1990), pp. 318-319
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-118, 126-131
Bonnemaison (1991), pp. 73
Humphreys (1926), pp. 74-92
Speiser (1990), pp. 318-319

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Adams (1984), pp. 8

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 89-92
Speiser (1990), pp. 293
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 181-182
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 181
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-123
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-131
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 126, 131-137, 146
Humphreys (1926), pp. 70-92
Adams (1984), pp. 13

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 73

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 15-34
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 13-44

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana and social status Unrelated (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-131
Humphreys (1926), pp. 70-100
Speiser (1990), pp. 307-336
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Speiser (1990), pp. 326
Humphreys (1926), pp. 61, 91
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 163
Humphreys (1926), pp. 80-81
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 70-92, 71-72

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 39, 81
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 74-81
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 88
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 88
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 37-40, 74-84
Social Environment +
Population 7000 (Source)
Rallu (1991), pp. 176N
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 13
Adams (1984), pp. 7
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 34
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 34
Kinship system Dravidian (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Casson & Gregory (1976), pp. 172
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 13, 35
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 44-45, 56-60
Conflict with other cultures Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 56-60
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 52-66
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Tryon (1998), pp. 332
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 39-48
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 24.9 (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 11
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7320.8 (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 11
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 52-58
Humphreys (1926), pp. 71
Adams (1984), pp. 61-64
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 42-43, 60-65
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 108
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-62
Bonnemaison (1991), pp. 76-78
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Bonnemaison (1991), pp. 76-78
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-65
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64-65
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64-65

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-65
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Adams (1984), pp. 8-10
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -19.5 (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 169.4 (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tanna) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 549.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tanna) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 1084.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tanna) (2014)
Post Contact History(1890-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a top-down process. (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 198-199
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 56-57, 198-199
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 52-58
Adoption of a world religion Present and major (Source)
Guiart (1956), pp. 110
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 199
Mercer (2007)

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, and survived to the present day (Source)
Mercer (2007)
Guiart (1956)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 17
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 92-93, 201, 203-204
Immigration Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 39-112
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vanuatu) (2014)
Language shift Low (Source)
Lindstrom (2007)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Hammond and Connell (2009), pp. 206
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vanuatu) (2014)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Hammond and Connell (2009), pp. 202, 206
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 41-43
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present but rarely used (Source)
Connell (2008), pp. 73
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Connell (2008), pp. 73
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 180
Connell (2008), pp. 73

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 93-94, 150-169
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 17
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 92-93, 201, 203-204
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism High: (Source)
Gregory & Gregory (2004), pp. 91-92
Institutional religious syncretism High (Source)
Mercer (2007)
Guiart (1952), pp. 166-167
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Guiart (1956), pp. 110
Mercer (2007)
External Links
References
Adams, R. (1984). European Contact with Tanna, 1774-1874. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University.

Adams, R. (1987). Homo anthropologicus and Man‐Tanna: Jean Guiart and the anthropological attempt to understand the Tannese. The Journal of Pacific History, 22(1), 3-14. DOI: 10.1080/00223348708572548

Baldick, J. (2013) Ancient Religions of the Austronesian World: From Australasia to Taiwan. London, UK: I.B. Tauris.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Bonnemaison, J. (1991). Magic Gardens in Tanna. Pacific Studies, 14 (4), 71-89.

Bonnemaison, J. (Trans. Paenot-Demetry, J.). (1994). The Tree and the Canoe: History and Ethnogeography of Tanna. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Casson, R. W. & Gregory, R. J. Kinship in Tanna, Southern New Hebrides: Marriage Rules and Equivalence Rules. Anthropological Linguistics, 18(4), 168-182. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/stable/30027433

Connell, J. (2008). The Continuity of Custom? Tourist Perceptions of Authenticity in Yakel Village, Tanna, Vanuatu. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 5 (2), 71-86, DOI: 10.2167/jtcc084.0

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tanna). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/582667/Tanna

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vanuatu). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/623102/Vanuatu

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gregory, R.J. & Gregory, J.E. (2004). Myth and Social Control: Extending a Tannese Case. Anthropologist, 6 (2), 91-95.

Guiart, J. (1952). L’organisation sociale et politique traditionnelle a Maré. Nouméa: Institut Français d’Océanie

Guiart, J. (1956). Culture Contact and the "John Frum" Movement on Tanna, New Hebrides. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12 (1), 105-116. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/3628861

Hammond, J. & Connell, J. (2009). The New Blackbirds? Vanuatu Guestworkers in New Zealand. New Zealand Geographer, 65 (3), 201-210. Retrieved from 10.1111/j.1745-7939.2009.01163.x

Humphreys, C. B. (1926). The Southern New Hebrides: An Ethnological Record. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lindstrom, L. (1991). Tanna. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Vol. II, pp 313-315). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Lindstrom, L. (2007). Bislama into Kwamera: Code-Mixing and Language Change on Tanna (Vanuatu). Language Documentation and Conservation, 1 (2), 216-239. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1773/lindstrom.html

Mercer, P. (2007). Cargo Cult Lives on in the South Pacific. BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6370991.stm

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Nehrbass, K. (2011). Dealing with Disaster: Critical Contextualization of Misfortune in an Animistic Setting. Missionology: An International Review, 39 (4), 459-471. DOI: 10.1177/009182961103900404

Rallu, J. (1991). Population of the French Overseas Territories in the Pacific, Past, Present, and Projected. The Journal of Pacific History, 26 (2), 169-186. DOI: 10.1080/00223349108572661.

Speiser, F. (1990). Ethnology of Vanuatu: an Early Twentieth Century Study. Bathurst, NSW: Crawford House Press. (Originally published 1923).

Tryon, D. (1998). Language, Space and Identity in Vanuatu. In Bonnemaison, J., Guillard, D. & Walter,. A (Eds.), Le Voyage Incheve, A Joel Bonnemaison. Paris, France: Orstom.