Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1774)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 181-182
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 129

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 181-182
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 181-182
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-123
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 115-116
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 173

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Kinship tapu Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana linked to genealogy Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana and social status Unrelated (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 256
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 118
Largest religious community Larger than a local community, smaller than the society (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 103-191
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 150-151

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 37-44, 74-84
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Turner (1861), pp. 79
Humphreys (1926), pp. 74-84
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 39, 74-84
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Turner (1861), pp. 79
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 74-75
Social Environment +
Population 20000 (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 35
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Adams (1984), pp. 35, 103-191
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314
Kinship system Dravidian (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Turner (1861), pp. 86
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 314

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 157-169
Spriggs (1985)
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 35
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 157-159
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 34
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 24.9 (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 34
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 1793.0 (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 11
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 3-38
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 37-44, 60-65
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64-65
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-70
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64-65
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 61-62
Turner (1861), pp. 87

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 32
Humphreys (1926), pp. 64
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 32
Water-based gathering Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-70
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 32

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Adams (1984), pp. 60-70
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Humphreys (1926), pp. 60-70
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
'Tanna' (2013)
Island Size (km²) 561.0 (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313
'Tanna' (2013)
Maximum elevation (meters) 1084.0 (Source)
'Tanna' (2013)

Location

Latitude -19.5 (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 169.4 (Source)
Lindstrom (1991), pp. 313
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1774-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 52-66
Adoption of a world religion Present and major (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Guiart (1956)

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Present, and survived to the present day (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, but of low importance (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 81-102
Atkinson (2018)
Immigration Absent (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Foreign education systems Medium (Source)
Atkinson (2018)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Atkinson (2018)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present but rarely used (Source)
Connell (2008)
Air travel Present, local only (Source)
Connell (2008)
Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 180
Connell (2008)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 56-58, 81-102
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Bonnemaison (1994), pp. 81-102
Atkinson (2018)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Institutional religious syncretism High (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Atkinson (2018)
External Links
References
Adams, R. (1984). European Contact with Tanna, 1774-1874. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University.

Atkinson, Q. D. (2018). Religion and expanding the cooperative sphere in Kastom and Christian villages on Tanna, Vanuatu. Religion, Brain & Behavior, 8(2), 149-167.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Bonnemaison, J. (1994). The Tree and the Canoe: History and Ethnogeography of Tanna (J. Paenot-Demetry, Trans). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Connell, J. (2007). The continuity of custom? Tourist perceptions of authenticity in Yakel Village, Tanna, Vanuatu. Journal of Tourism and Cultural change, 5(2), 71-86. DOI: 10.2167/jtcc084.0

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Gray, W. (1893). Some notes on the Tannese. Proceedings of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science, 3-38. Retrieved from https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-401328429/view?partId=nla.obj-401370812#page/n0/mode/1up

Guiart, J. (1956). Culture Contact and the "John Frum" Movement on Tanna, New Hebrides. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12 (1), 105-116. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/3628861

Humphreys, C. B. (1926). The Southern New Hebrides: An Ethnological Record. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lindstrom, L. (1991). Tanna. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Vol. II, pp 313-315). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Spriggs, M. (1985). ‘A school in every district’: The cultural geography of conversion on Aneityum, Southern Vanuatu. The Journal of Pacific History, 20(1), 23-41.

Tanna (2013). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Tanna-island-Vanuatu.

Turner, G. (1861). Nineteen years in Polynesia: Missionary life, travels, and researches in the islands of the Pacific. London, U.K.: John Snow. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/nineteenyearsin00turngoog/mode/1up

Turner, G. (1884). Samoa, a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before: Together with Notes on the Cults and Customs of Twenty-Three other Islands in the Pacific. London, UK: Macmillan and Co. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/samoaahundredye00turngoog/mode/1up