Also known as: Teto; Tetun; Belu; Belunese

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Traditional Culture(1885-1910)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 32-33, 35-40
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 25-46, 32-35
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 33, 88-91
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 25-46, 88
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 25-46

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 37-39, 88-89

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 40-41, 115-133
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 40-41
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 30, 33
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 32-33
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 25-46, 36, 40

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 65-66

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 83
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 25-46, 47-70
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 72

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 261
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 261
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 109
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 39, 62
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Fox (1996), pp. 11
Hicks (2004), pp. 14-15
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 42-45
Fox (1996), pp. 11-13
Social Environment +
Population 70000 (Source)
Schulte Nordholt (1971), pp. 19
Hull (2003), pp. 30
Hicks (2004), pp. 13
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 100
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 100
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 100
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1972), pp. 101

Conflict

Conflict within communities Moderate (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 82-83
Conflict between communities of the culture Common, at least every five years (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 87
Hicks (1972), pp. 102
Ormeling (1957), pp. 83
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 10-12
Fox (1996), pp. 10
Schulte Nordholt (1971), pp. 328
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 4-13, 4
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 14
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 2456.2 (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 14
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 4
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 4
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 4-5, 7
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 57
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53, 60
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 99
Hicks (2004), pp. 53, 60

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 57-58
Ormeling (1957), pp. 116
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Hicks (1972), pp. 98
Hicks (2004), pp. 14

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -9.3 (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 14
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 125.2 (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 14
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Tectonic (Source)
Fox (2003), pp. 2
Island Size (km²) 30459.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Timor) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2963.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Timor) (2014)
Post Contact History(1910-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Fox (1996), pp. 13
Arenas (1998), pp. 138
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 4
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Hockings (1993A), pp. 276
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 10-13, 140
Immigration Low (Source)
Hull (2003), pp. 31-32
Language shift Medium (Source)
Ramos-Horta (2012), pp. 2
Fox (1996), pp. 21
Jones (2003), pp. 48
Foreign education systems Medium (Source)
Bouma et al. (2010), pp. 54

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Hicks (2004), pp. 8-9
Hicks (2004), pp. 10-13, 140
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Fox (1996), pp. 8-9
Hicks (2004), pp. 10-13, 140

Economic Changes

Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Ormeling (1957), pp. 171-179
Hicks (2004), pp. 53, 56-57
Pedersen & Arneberg (1999), pp. 42-43
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism High: (Source)
Fox (1996), pp. 13-14
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Bouma et al. (2010), pp. 56
Hockings (1993A), pp. 276
External Links
References
Arenas, A. (1998). Education and Nationalism in East Timor. Social Justice, 25 (2), 131-148. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/29767074

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Bouma, G. D., Ling, R., & Pratt, D. (Eds.). (2010). Religious Diversity in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Timor). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/596305/Timor

Fox, J.J. (1996). The Paradox of Powerlessness: Timor in Historical Perspective. Paper Presented at the Nobel Prize Symposium, Oslo.

Fox, J.J. (2003). Tracing the Path, Recounting the Past: Historical Perspectives on Timor. In J.J. Fox & D.B. Soares (Eds.), Out of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor (pp 1-27). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press. Retrieved from http://press.anu.edu.au/oota/frames.php

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hicks, D. (1972). Eastern Tetum. In F.M. Lebar (Ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia (Vol. I, pp 98-103). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.

Hicks, D. (2004). Tetum Ghosts and Kin: Fertility and Gender in East Timor (2nd Ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Hockings, P. (1993A). Ifugao. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume 5: East and Southeast Asia (99-101). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Hull, T.H. (2003). From Province to Nation: The Demographic Revolution of a People. In Fox, J.J. & Soares, D.B. (Eds.), Out of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press. Retrieved from http://press.anu.edu.au/oota/frames.php

Jones, G.W. (2003). East Timor: Education and Human Resource Development. Fox, J.J. & Soares, D.B. (Eds.). Out of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor. Canberra: ANU Press. Retrieved from http://press.anu.edu.au/oota/frames.php

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1972). Eastern Sumbanese in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Ormeling, F.J. (1957). The Timor Problem: A Geographical Interpretation of an Underdeveloped Island. Gravenhage, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Pedersen, J., & Arneberg, M. (1999). Social and economic conditions in East Timor. New York, NY: Columbia University, International Conflict Resolution Program.

Ramos-Horta, J. (2012). Timor-Leste’s language policy: Tetum, Portuguese, Bahasa Indonesia or English?. RSIS Commentaries, 070, Singapore: Nanyang Technological University. http://hdl.handle.net/10220/8445.

Schulte Nordholt, H.G. (1971). The Political System of the Atoni of Timor. The Hague, Netherlands: Nijhoff.