Also known as: Itneg; Tinggian

The Tinguian or Itneg live in the western Cordillera of Luzon, the largest island of the Philippines. Headhunting played a central role in their indigenous religion - when a prominent man died, it was essential to conduct a headhunting raid to end the period of mourning that followed. Until the early twentieth century, the Christianized neighbours of the Tinguian would often fall victim to these raids. Like the other peoples of the Cordillera, the Tinguian converted to Christianity in the course of the twentieth century.

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Traditional Culture(1845-1870)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-358, 301
Gaioni (1985), pp. 390
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-358, 301
Gaioni (1985), pp. 390
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 294, 296
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 296
Gaioni (1985), pp. 386
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 297-298
Millare (1955), pp. 407

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 326
Millare (1955), pp. 408-409

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 292, 296
Millare (1955), pp. 410-422
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 284, 293
Millare (1955), pp. 410-422
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Cole (1985)
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Cole (1985)
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Cole (1985), pp. 171-194
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 298

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 297

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 361
Millare (1955), pp. 410
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-358, 371-412
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 359-370, 295-358

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 286, 371-372
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 289, 296, 326, 400
Millare (1955)
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 315-358, 324, 327
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-358,296, 301-303, 359

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 438
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Cole (1909)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 437-440
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 437-440
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-395, 438
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 439
Social Environment +
Population 10000 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238
Gaioni (1985), pp. 383-384
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Eggan (1941), pp. 13
Lebar (1975), pp. 83
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 360
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 360
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 96
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 283
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 96
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 279, 282

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 359-370
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-372
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 245, 371
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 241-245
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 744.9 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Dale (1996)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236, 295-358
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238-246
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 241-245, 295-358
Eggan (1941), pp. 17-18
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412, 411-412
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 378-383
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412, 383,
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 378-383
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 387, 403-406

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 383-386
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 383-386
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412, 383

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412, 395
Metalworking Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 413-416
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 17.6 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.8 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Rangin (1991), pp. 212-213, 217
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon) (2014)
Post Contact History(1870-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 244-246
Millare (1955), pp. 405
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 243-244
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Millare (1955), pp. 405

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 241-246
Millare (1955)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Gaioni (1985), pp. 400
Immigration High (Source)
Gaioni (1985), pp. 400
Language shift Medium (Source)
Del Curro (2014), pp. 211
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 246
Millare (1955), pp. 404-405

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present but rarely used (Source)
Del Curro (2014), pp. 208

Loss of Autonomy

Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 244-245
Eggan (1956), pp. 338
Gaioni (1985), pp. 400
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Ethnologue (Itneg, Binongan) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cole, F. C. (1909). Distribution of the non-Christian tribes of northwestern Luzon. American Anthropologist, 11(3), 329-347.

Cole, F. C. (1985). Traditions of the Tinguian: A study in Philippine folklore. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.

Cole, F.C., & Gale, A. (1922). The Tinguian: Social, Religious, and Economic Life of a Philippine Tribe. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Dale, P.W (1996). The Tonga Book. Knightsbridge, London: Minerva Press.

Del Curro, A. (2014) Tinggian: What If There Is No Standard Dialect? The Bible Translator, 65 (2), 205-221. DOI: 10.1177/2051677014529565.

Eggan, F. (1941). Some aspects of culture change in the northern Philippines. American Anthropologist, 43(1), 11-18.

Eggan, F. (1956). Ritual Myths among the Tinguian. The Journal of American Folklore, 69 (274), 331-339.Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/536339.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Luzon). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/352414/Luzon

Ethnologue (Itneg, Binongan). (2014). "Itneg, Binongan". Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/language/itb

Ethnologue (Map of Northern Philippines). (2014). Map of Northern Philippines. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PH_n

Gaioni, D. T. (1985). The Tingyans of northern Philippines and their spirit world. Anthropos, 80 (4/6), 381-401.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, F.M. (1934). Modern Samoa: Its Government and Changing Life. London, UK: Allen and Unwin Ltd. Retrieved from http://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/ehrafe/citation.do?method=citation&forward=browseCulturesFullContext&col=collection%28%27/eHRAF/ethnography/Oceania/OU08%27%29&docId=ou08-006&tocOffsetId=tocPubInfoP

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Millare, F. D. (1955). The Tinguians and their old form of worship. Philippine Studies, 3(4), 403-414.

Rangin, C. (1991). The Philippine Mobile Belt: A Complex Plate Boundary. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6 (3-4), 209-220. DOI: 10.1016/0743-9547(91)90068-9