Also known as: Itneg; Tinggian

The Tinguian or Itneg live in the western Cordillera of Luzon, the largest island of the Philippines. Headhunting played a central role in their indigenous religion - when a prominent man died, it was essential to conduct a headhunting raid to end the period of mourning that followed. Until the early twentieth century, the Christianized neighbours of the Tinguian would often fall victim to these raids. Like the other peoples of the Cordillera, the Tinguian converted to Christianity in the course of the twentieth century.

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Traditional Culture(1907)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 297-301
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 297-301
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 294, 296
Millare (1955)
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 294, 296-301
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 296-301

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 326

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 292
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 288-289, 292
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Cole (1985)
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Cole (1985)
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Cole (1985), pp. 171-194
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 298

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 297

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-314, 359-370
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-358, 371-412
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 361

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-372
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 289, 296, 326, 400
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 315-358
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 295-370

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 437-440
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 437-440
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 438
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 438
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 261-295, 437-440
Social Environment +
Population 20000 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238
Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1921), pp. 900
Gaioni (1985)
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 360
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 360
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 283
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 279, 282

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246, 371-378
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 359-370
(No) internal warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-378
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Distance to nearest continent 720.0 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246, 295-314
Eggan (1941)
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 387-412
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 378-383
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 378-383
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 387, 403-404

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 383-386
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 383-386
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 371-412
Metalworking Present (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 413-416
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Yumul et al. (2009), pp. 732-733
Island Size (km²) 104688.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)
Maximum elevation (meters) 2930.0 (Source)
'Luzon' (2019)

Location

Latitude 17.6 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.8 (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 238
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1907-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 244-246
Millare (1955)
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Millare (1955)
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 243-244

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Millare (1955)
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Gaioni (1985)
Immigration High (Source)
Gaioni (1985)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Del Curro (2014)
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922)
Millare (1955)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present but rarely used (Source)
Del Curro (2014)
Air travel Absent (Source)
Del Curro (2014)
Sea port Absent (Source)
Del Curro (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Cole & Gale (1922), pp. 236-246
Gaioni (1985)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Census Office of the Philippine Islands (1921). Census of the Philippine Islands taken under the direction of the Philippine Legislature in the year 1918 (Vol. II: Population and Mortality). Manila, Bureau of Printing. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusofphilippi03philiala

Cole, F. C. (1985). Traditions of the Tinguian: A study in Philippine folklore. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.

Cole, F.C., & Gale, A. (1922). The Tinguian: Social, Religious, and Economic Life of a Philippine Tribe. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/jstor-29782148/mode/1up

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Del Curro, A. (2014) Tinggian: What If There Is No Standard Dialect? The Bible Translator, 65 (2), 205-221. DOI: 10.1177/2051677014529565.

Eggan, F. (1941). Some aspects of culture change in the northern Philippines. American Anthropologist, 43(1), 11-18.

Gaioni, D. T. (1985). The Tingyans of northern Philippines and their spirit world. Anthropos, 80 (4/6), 381-401.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Luzon (2019). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved https://www.britannica.com/place/Luzon

Millare, F. D. (1955). The Tinguians and their old form of worship. Philippine Studies, 3(4), 403-414.

United States Bureau of the Census (1905). Census of the Philippine islands, taken under the direction of the Philippine commission in the year 1903 (Vol. II: Population). Washington, DC: United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/censusphilippin01ganngoog/mode/1up

Yumul, G., Dimalanta, C., Queaño, K., & Marquez, E. (2009). Philippines, geology. In R. Gillespie & D. Clague (eds.), Encyclopedia of Islands (pp. 732-738). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.