Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1835-1860)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59-73
Nature god(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59-73
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59-73
Deified ancestor(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59-73
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 69
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 43-44, 69
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 16-18
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 16-18
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 16, 59-73, 59, 79-88

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 40
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 58
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 49-50

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 59-73, 157-158
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 66-67
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 49, 67
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 49-53

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 142
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 39
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35-45, 142-145
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 142-143
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35-45, 142-145
Social Environment +
Population 750 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
MacGregor (1937), pp. 49
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 331
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 331

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
Conflict between communities of the culture Rare or never (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 27-32
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 461.0 (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 4, 7
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 7251.3 (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 4
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 29-34
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147, 150
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 367
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147-148
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 367
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147, 149
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 367
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147-151
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147-151

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 92-110, 93, 150
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 147, 150
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 92-110, 93, 150

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 92-157, 147-151
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
MacGregor (1937), pp. 13

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -9.4 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -171.2 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 5
Island Size (km²) 4.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Fakaofo) (2014), pp. 5
Maximum elevation (meters) 3.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Fakaofo) (2014)
Post Contact History(1860-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 32-33
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 32-33
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 32-33
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 374-378
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, but of low importance (Source)
MacGregor (1937), pp. 34-35
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Immigration Absent (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Language shift Medium (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Sea port Absent (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 379-381
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 379-381
MacGregor (1937), pp. 35
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau) (2014)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Fakaofo). (2014). "Fakaofo". Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/703307/Fakaofo.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Tokelau). (2014). "Tokelau". Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/EBchecked/topic/598216/Tokelau

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hooper A & Huntsman J. (1973). A demographic history of the Tokelau Islands. The Journal of Polynesian Society, 84(4), 366-411. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20704952

Hunt, C.D. & Peterson, F.L. (1980). Groundwater resources of Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center.

Huntsman, J. & Hooper, H. (1991). Tokelau. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. II, pp 330-333). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

MacGregor, G. (1937). Ethnology of Tokelau Islands. Honolulu, HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.