Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1841)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59-69
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59-69
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59-69
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59-69
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 150-151

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 69
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 43-44, 69
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 16-19
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 127-129
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 16-19
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 127-129
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 16-19, 59-69, 79-88

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 49
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 58
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 40

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 59-69, 157-158
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 66-67
Largest religious community Whole society or larger (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 150-151
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 158-161

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 35-45, 142-145
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 142-145
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 142
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 143
Genital cutting Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 39
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 35-36
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 35-36
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 35
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 35
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 331
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 41-42
Marital residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal - with wife's kin (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 331

Conflict

(No) external warfare Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 16-34
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 127-147
Conflict within community Low (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
(No) internal warfare Rare or never (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 332
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 26-32
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 139-147
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 461.0 (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 4, 7
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 4101.0 (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 4
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 29-34
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147, 150
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147-150
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147, 149
Hooper & Huntsman (1973)
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147-150
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147-148
Hooper & Huntsman (1973)

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 92-110, 150
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 92-110, 150
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 147, 150

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 145-151
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Macgregor (1937), pp. 92-158
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 19-20, 28

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Island Size (km²) 4.0 (Source)
'Fakaofo' (2008), pp. 5
Maximum elevation (meters) 3.0 (Source)
'Fakaofo' (2008)

Location

Latitude -9.4 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -171.2 (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1841-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Primarily a bottom-up process. (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 181-215
Use of force in conversion Medium (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 181-215
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 181-215

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1996), pp. 181-215
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, but of low importance (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Foster (2018)
Immigration Absent (Source)
Foster (2018)
Language shift Medium (Source)
Foster (2018)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Foster (2018)

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Medium (Source)
Foster (2018)
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present but minor (Source)
Foster (2018)

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Absent (Source)
Foster (2018)
Sea port Absent (Source)
Foster (2018)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely voluntary (Source)
Hooper & Huntsman (1973), pp. 257-273
Foster (2018)
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Foster (2018)
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Low (Source)
Foster (2018)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Institutional religious syncretism Low (Source)
Foster (2018)
Huntsman & Hooper (1991), pp. 330
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Foster (2018)
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Fakaofo (2008). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Fakaofo

Foster, S. (2021). Tokelau. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Tokelau.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hooper A & Huntsman J. (1973). A demographic history of the Tokelau Islands. The Journal of Polynesian Society, 84(4), 366-411. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20704952

Huntsman, J. & Hooper, A. (1996). Tokelau: A historical ethnography. Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press.

Huntsman, J. & Hooper, H. (1991). Tokelau. Encyclopedia of World Cultures (Vol. II, pp 330-333). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Macgregor, G. (1937). Ethnology of Tokelau Islands. Honolulu, HI: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.