Also known as: Tongarevan

Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1853)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-92
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-92
Ancestral spirits Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 80-92
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 80-92
God(s) Present, and the principal focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-92

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 88

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 80-92
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 80-92
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-92
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-86
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-92

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 15-54, 71-92
Kinship tapu Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 15-54, 71-92

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Present (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 85-86
Mana as a personal quality Present (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 90
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Present (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 54-57, 85-92
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 80-92
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 340-341
Campbell (1985), pp. 73-74

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 138-144
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 32-39, 144
Piercing Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 138-144
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 144
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 32-39, 138-144
Social Environment +
Population 2000 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339-341
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 41
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 41
Kinship system Hawaiian (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 340
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 340
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 340

Conflict

(No) external warfare Rare or never (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 6-9, 15-26, 54-57
Conflict within community Moderate (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 51-54
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 54
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Occasional but not often (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 350.0 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to nearest continent 5467.0 (Source)
Roscoe (1993), pp. 339
Pre-Austronesian population Absent: No evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 106-108
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 107-108
Land-based gathering Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 106-123
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 107-108
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 108

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 107-108, 197-212
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 107-108, 197-212
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 107-108

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 340
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Buck (1932b)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Atoll (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Island Size (km²) 9.73 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Maximum elevation (meters) 15.0 (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 6

Location

Latitude -9.0 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude -158.0 (Source)
Roscoe (1991), pp. 339
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(?)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Role of social status in conversion process Mixed / Neither (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 8
Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 8
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 8
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from Austronesian societies only (Source)
Buck (1932b), pp. 7-8
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Buck, P. H. (1932b). Ethnology of Tongareva. Honolulu, HW: The Museum. Retrieved from http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BucTong.html

Campbell, A. R. T. (1985). Social relations in ancient Tongareva. Honolulu, HW: Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Roscoe, P. B. (1991). Tongareva. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Vol. II: Oceania) (pp. 339-342). New York, NY: G. K. Hall & Co.

Roscoe, P. B. (1993). Practice and political centralisation: A new approach to political evolution. Current Anthropology, 34(2), 111-124.