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Traditional Culture(1875-1900)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 33, 35
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 33, 35
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Ferrell (1969), pp. 37
Lebar (1975), pp. 142
Deified ancestor(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 142
Ferrell (1969), pp. 37
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 34, 35

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 27

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 32
Lebar (1975), pp. 142
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 32-33
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and creationist (Source)
Ferrell (1969), pp. 37
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Ferrell (1969), pp. 37
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of worship (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 34, 35
Lebar (1975), pp. 142

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Ferrell (1969), pp. 37

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Tu Er-Wei (1959), pp. 540-541

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Blevins (2008)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 25
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 32, 35
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a local community, no larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 141
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 35
Lebar (1975), pp. 142

Rites

Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Baldick (2013), pp. 29-30
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 29-32
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 29-32
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Tooth pulling Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 6, 20, 30
Social Environment +
Population 1300 (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138, 141
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Strouthes (1993A), pp. 258
Importance of Matrilateral descent Low (Source)
Strouthes (1993A), pp. 258
Polygamy Monogamy prescribed (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 140-141
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 141
Conflict with other cultures Common, at least every five years (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138, 141
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 5
Chang & Goodenough (1996), pp. 36-38
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 236.5 (Source)
Blundell (2000), pp. 44, 182
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Blust (1996), pp. 125-128
Trejaut et al (2005), pp. 1362
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief, and culture is unlikely to have had contact with Hindu or Buddhist societies at or prior to to the time focus in question. (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Maps 2.21, 2.23
Adelaar (1995A), pp. 60-61
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Islamic influence on supernatural belief, and culture is unlikely to have had contact with Islamic societies at or prior to the time focus in question. (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Adelaar (1995A), pp. 60-61
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Christian influence on supernatural belief, but culture is known to have had (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 5
Manthorpe (2005), pp. 104
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 6, 28
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138-139
Hipwell (2007), pp. 886
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Baldick (2013), pp. 6, 28
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138-139

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Water-based gathering Minor (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 138-139

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Absent (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 139-142
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Lebar (1975), pp. 139
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Blundell (2000), pp. 44, 182

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 23.4 (Source)
Blundell (2000), pp. 44, 82
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 120.8 (Source)
Blundell (2000), pp. 44, 82
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (Taiwan) (2014)
Island Size (km²) 32260.0 (Source)
Ding et al (2005), pp. 300
Maximum elevation (meters) 3952.0 (Source)
Ding et al (2005), pp. 300
Post Contact History(1900-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Hipwell (2007), pp. 886
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 254-255
Hipwell (2007), pp. 886
Immigration Absent (Source)
Chu (2000), pp. 1026
Language shift High (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 255-256
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 254
Law (2002), pp. 66

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence High (Source)
Hipwell (2007), pp. 883, 887
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Hipwell (2007), pp. 887, 886, 889

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Hipwell (2007), pp. 886, 890, 893
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 253, 255
Air travel Absent (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 253, 255
Wang et al (2004), pp. 353
Sea port Absent (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 253, 255

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Rubinstein (2007), pp. 180
Lebar (1975), pp. 128-129, 141
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 254-255
Lebar (1975), pp. 128-129, 141
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Hipwell (2007), pp. 886
Chen & Lin (2000), pp. 255
External Links
References
Adelaar, A. (1995A). Asian Roots of the Malagasy: A Linguistic Perspective. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 151 (3), 325-356. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27864676.

Baldick, J. (2013) Ancient Religions of the Austronesian World: From Australasia to Taiwan. London, UK: I.B. Tauris.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blundell, D. (Ed.). (2000). Austronesian Taiwan: Linguistics, History, Ethnology, Prehistory. Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc.

Blust, R. (1996). Beyond the Austronesian Homeland: The Austric Hypothesis and its Implications for Archaeology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 117-158. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006623.

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Chang, K. & Goodenough, W.H. (1996). Archaeology of Southeastern Coastal China and its Bearing on the Austronesian Homeland. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 86 (5), 36-56. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1006620

Chen, C. F. & Lin, M. C. (2000). Issues of the Intercultural Adaptation of of the Tsou Aboriginal Population in Modern Taiwanese Society. Intercultural Education, 11 (3), 253-258. DOI: 10.1080/14675980020002402

Chu, J. (2000). From Incorporation to Exclusion: The Employment Experience of Taiwanese Urban Aborigines. The China Quarterly, 164, 1025-1043. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/655925

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Ding, T., Yuan, H., Geng, S., Lin, Y. & Li, P. (2005). Energy flux, Body Size and Density in Relation to Bird Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in Taiwan. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14 (4), 299-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-822X.2005.00159.x

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Taiwan). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/580902/Taiwan

Ethnologue (Map of Taiwan). (2014). Map of Taiwan. Ethnologue. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/TW

Ferrel, R. (1969). Taiwan Aboriginal Groups: Problems in Cultural and Linguistic Classification. Taipei, Taiwan: Academa Sinica.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hipwell, W. T. (2007). Taiwan Aboriginal Ecotourism: Tanayiku National Park. Annals of Tourism Research, 34 (4), 876-897. DOI: 10.16/j.annals.2007.04.002

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Law, W. (2002). Education Reform in Taiwan: A Search for a 'National' Identity through Democratisation and Taiwanisation. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 32 (1), 61-81. DOI: 10.1080/03057920120116535

Lebar, F. (Ed.). (1975). Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia. Volume 2: Philippines and Formosa. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press.

Manthorpe, J. (2005). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rubinstein, M. (2007). Taiwan: a New History. New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe. (Originally published 1999).

Strouthes, D. (1993A). Taiwan Aboriginal Peoples. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume V: East and Southeast Asia (pp 256-258). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Trejaut, J. A., Kivisild, T., Loo, J. H., Lee, C. L., He, C. L., Hsu, C. J., … & Lin, M. (2005). Traces of Archaic Mitochondrial Lineages Persist in Austronesian-Speaking Formosan Populations. PLoS Biology, 3 (8), 1362-1372. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030247.

Tu Er-Wei, J. (1959). A Contribution to the Mythology of the Tsou, Formosa. Anthropos, 54 (3-4), 536-541. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40454250

Wang, R., Ho, C., Feng, C., & Yang, Y. (2004). A Comparative Analysis of the Operational Performance of Taiwan's Major Airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 10 (5), 353-360. DOI: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2004.05.005