Also known as: Bisaya; Cebuano; Boholano; Ibabao, Samareno

Visayans or Bisayans are the indigenous people of the Visayan Islands. They speak many languages, of which the largest in terms of number of speakers today is Cebuano. According to Ethnologue there are 25 Bisayan language, although at least one (Tausug) is spoken by a group considered to be outside the Visayan culture area.

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Traditional Culture(1539-1564)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77-78
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77-78
Ancestral spirits Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77, 80-81
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77-93
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 78-81

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 78

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 92-93
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Principal determinant of one's afterlife (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77, 93-94
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 87-88
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 87-88

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77-78

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 86
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 154
Costly sacrifices and offerings Present (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 78
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 77-93

Rites

Genital cutting Present in culture, but not a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 25
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 18-19
Tattooing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 20
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 17-34
Piercing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 25-26
Social Environment +
Population 385000 (Source)
Newson (2006)
Population of largest political community 1,000-9,999 (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 127-146
Junker (1999), pp. 74, 109-110
Importance of Patrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 127-146
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 127-146
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 142
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 140-143

Conflict

Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 147-157
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 147-157
Conflict within communities High (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 127-146
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 75, 152
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 17.6 (Source)
'Visayan Islands' (2016)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 1388.0 (Source)
'Visayan Islands' (2016)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief Evidence of influence (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 78
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 75, 77-93
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 75, 77-93
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 46
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 43-44, 47
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 35-53
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 43-44, 47
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 35

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Major (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 45-46, 47
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 45-46, 47
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 47

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Major (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 71-72
Metalworking Present (Source)
Scott (1994), pp. 54-56
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Four or more (Source)
Newson (2006)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude 11.2 (Source)
Newson (2006)
Longitude 122.4 (Source)
Newson (2006)
External Links
References
Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Junker, L. L. (1991). Raiding, trading, and feasting: The political economy of Philippine chiefdoms. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Newson, L. A. (2006). Conquest, pestilence and demographic collapse in the early Spanish Philippines. Journal of Historical Geography, 32(1), 3-20.

Scott, M. (2007). The Severed Snake: Matrilineages, Making Place, and a Melanesian Christianity in Southeast Solomon Islands. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Scott, W. H. (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Manila, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Visayan Islands. (2016). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www-britannica-com/place/Visayan-Islands