Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1905)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 234-321
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 244, 278-282
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 167-197
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 169-170, 209, 214
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-233, 234-267

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 283

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 168-169
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife One factor in determining one's afterlife (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 168-170
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 299-300
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 268-321
Culture hero(es) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-321

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 241-242

Classes of Tapu

Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 235
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 234-267
Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 257

Mana

Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Keesing (1984)
Blust (2007)
Blevins (2008)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 214-215, 225
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-233
Largest religious community Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 45-85, 128-233
Political and religious differentiation Some overlap (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 45-85, 198-267

Rites

Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 23-33, 86-197
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 27-28, 86-197
Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 145-152
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 27-29, 154
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 23-33, 86-197
Social Environment +
Population 7000 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 24-25
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 24-25, 45-85
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 45-85
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 47-65
Polygamy Limited polygyny (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 123
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 62

Conflict

(No) external warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 2, 18-21, 198-233
Conflict within community Endemic (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 45-85, 198-233
(No) internal warfare Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 198-233
Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10-11
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 8
Distance to nearest continent 938.0 (Source)
Asher & Moseley (2007), pp. Map 34
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence and not in region of known contact (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 15
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of influence but in a region where contact is likely (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 18-21
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 322-370
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 352
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 345-350
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 352
Agriculture / Horticulture Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 346-351

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 342-346
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 342-346
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 345-346

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10-11, 322-324, 350
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 15
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Three (Source)
Asher & Moseley (2007), pp. Map 34
Held (1957), pp. 8

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
O'Connell & Allen (2004)
Island Size (km²) 821400.0 (Source)
'New Guinea' (2019)
Maximum elevation (meters) 4884.0 (Source)
'New Guinea' (2019)

Location

Latitude -2.3 (Source)
Asher & Moseley (2007), pp. 135
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 136.5 (Source)
Asher & Moseley (2007), pp. 135
Google Maps (2014)
Post Contact History(1905-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 22
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-21

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 15-22
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 22
Language shift High (Source)
Walker (1993), pp. 77
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Mollet (2011)

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
External Links
References
Asher, R. E. & Moseley, C. J. (Eds.). (2007). Atlas of the World’s languages (2nd Ed.). Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Held, G .J. (1957). The Papuas of Waropen. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Mollet, J. A. (2011). The Dynamics of Contemporary Local-Government Policies and Economic Development in West Papua. Development in Practice, 21 (2), 232-242. DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2011.543273

New Guinea (2019). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/New-Guinea.

O’Connell, J. F. & Allen, J. (2004). Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research. Journey of Archaeological Science, 31, 835-853. DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2003.11.005.

Walker, R. (1993). Language Shift in Europe and Irian Jaya, Indonesia: Toward the Heart of the Matter. In De Bot, K. (Ed.), Case Studies in Minority Languages. Amsterdam: Offsetdrukkerij Ridderprint.