Show Map of Location

Traditional Culture(1880-1905)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-321, 256-257
Nature god(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 278-282
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-321, 168-170
Deified ancestor(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 169-170
God(s) Present, and a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 128-197, 262-267, 289-299

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 238

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living do not affect the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Held (1957), pp. `68-169
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 168
Myth of humanity’s creation Present, and evolutionary (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 300, 315
Primordial pair Present, and genealogically linked to humans now living (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 299-300
Culture hero(es) Present, and a major focus of worship (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 282-289, 295, 317

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 241-242

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 257
Resource management tapu Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 45-197, 234-321
Social hierarchy tapu Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 74

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 257
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008), pp. 257
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Present (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 214-215, 225
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 169-170, 205-206
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than a household, no larger than the local community (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 50-51
Political and religious differentiation No overlap (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 246

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 145-152
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 26-30, 128-197
Scarification Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 88-99; 128-166
Tattooing Present in culture, but not as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 27-29
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 26-30, 128-197
Social Environment +
Population 7000 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 22-26
Hays (1991B), pp. 376
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 21, 47-54, 69, 200-201
Importance of Patrilateral descent High (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 47-65
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 47-65
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Hays (1991B), pp. 376
Marital residence Patrilocal or virilocal - with husband's kin (Source)
Hays (1991B), pp. 376

Conflict

Conflict within communities Endemic (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 49, 201
Conflict between communities of the culture Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 200-201
Conflict with other cultures Frequent, occurring at least yearly (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 18-21, 198-199, 214
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 1-10, 18-20
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 0.0 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 1-9
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 3383.8 (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 1-9
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
O'Connell & Allen (2004), pp. 836
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief, and culture is unlikely to have had contact with Hindu or Buddhist societies at or prior to to the time focus in question. (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Islamic influence on supernatural belief, but culture is known to have had (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 4, 15-16
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Christian influence on supernatural belief, but culture is known to have had (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 353-354
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 352
Land-based gathering Major (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 345-348
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 352-353
Agriculture / Horticulture Minor (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 350-351

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 342-346
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Major (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 342-346
Water-based gathering Major (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10, 345-346

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Medium (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 10-11, 322-324, 350
Metalworking Absent (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 322-370
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture One (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 1-9

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -2.2 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Held (1957), pp. 1-9
Longitude 136.5 (Source)
Google Maps (2014)
Held (1957), pp. 1-9
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Continental island (Source)
O'Connell & Allen (2004), pp. 835
Island Size (km²) 821400.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (New Guinea) (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 4884.0 (Source)
Encyclopaedia Britannica (New Guinea) (2014)
Post Contact History(1905-2014)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-21
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-21
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 22
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 22
Immigration Medium (Source)
Pouwer (1999), pp. 174-175
Mollet (2011), pp. 235, 232
Language shift High (Source)
Walker (1993), pp. 77
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Mollet (2007), pp. 158

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Mollet (2007), pp. 160
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Walker (1993), pp. 78-79

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Largely involuntary (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
Loss of political autonoomy High (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
Foley (1986), pp. 3-4
Pouwer (1999), pp. 171-172

Modern Infrastructure

Sea port Absent (Source)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009), pp. 168
Current Culture(2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Held (1957), pp. 20-22
External Links
References
Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Bone, R. (1958). The negro novel in America. Yale University Press.

Brunton, R. (1989). The Abandoned Narcotic: Kava and Cultural Instability in Melanesia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Emerson, R. (1946). Education in the Netherlands East Indies. The Journal of Negro Education, 15(3), 494-507.

Encyclopaedia Britannica (Biak Island). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64298/Biak-Island

Encyclopaedia Britannica (New Guinea). (2014). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/411548/New-Guinea

Foley, W. A. (1986). The Papuan Languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.nz/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KCATREJERGoC&oi=fnd&pg=PR10&dq=new+guinea+missionaries+dutch&ots=DxA1n4FHML&sig=QuGqCrZmy4lk3Z449NXYf0WeVLU#v=onepage&q=new%20guinea%20missionaries%20dutch&f=false

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hays, T. E. (1991B). Waropen. In T. E. Hays (Ed.), The Encyclopaedia of World Cultures Volume II: Oceania (376). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Held, G .J. (1957). The Papuas of Waropen. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Indonesia, Eastern Papua [map]. (2015). Paul, L. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (eds.). Ethnologue: languages of the world, eighteenth edition. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/ID_pe_

Mollet, J. A. (2007) Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province. International Education Journal, 8 (2), 155-166. Retrieved from http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/iej/articles/v8n2/v8n2.pdf#page=162

Mollet, J. A. (2011). The Dynamics of Contemporary Local-Government Policies and Economic Development in West Papua. Development in Practice, 21 (2), 232-242. DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2011.543273

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (2009). World Port Index Nineteenth Edition. Bethesda, MD: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

O’Connell, J. F. & Allen, J. (2004). Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research. Journey of Archaeological Science, 31, 835-853. DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2003.11.005.

Pouwer, J. (1999). The Colonisation, Decolonisation and Recolonisation of West New Guinea. The Journal of Pacific History, 34 (2), 157-159. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25161076

Walker, R. (1993). Language Shift in Europe and Irian Jaya, Indonesia: Toward the Heart of the Matter. In De Bot, K. (Ed.), Case Studies in Minority Languages. Amsterdam: Offsetdrukkerij Ridderprint.