Also known as: Vokeo; Wageva

Wogeo is a volcanic island off the north coast of New Guinea. The people of Wogeo have been noted for their custom of penile bloodletting, which was seen as a form of male menstruation and was believed to be necessary for maintaining good health. The anthropologist Ian Hogbin referred to Wogeo in his 1970 ethnography as 'the island of menstruating men'.

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Traditional Culture(1910-1935)Expand All +
Belief +

Supernatural Beings

Nature Spirits Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27-59
Nature god(s) Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27-59
Ancestral spirits Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 330
Hogbin (1970), pp. 55-57
Deified ancestor(s) Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 330
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27-28
God(s) Present, but not a major focus of supernatural practice (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27-28, 142
Hogbin (1935), pp. 330
Hogbin & Lawrence (1967), pp. 35

Supernatural Punishment

Supernatural punishment for impiety Present (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 330
Hogbin (1970), pp. 142

Afterlife and Creation

One's actions while living can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions while living do not affect the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 55
The actions of others after one has died can affect the nature of one's afterlife Actions of others after one has died are one factor in determining the nature of one’s afterlife (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 55
Myth of humanity’s creation Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27
Primordial pair Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970)
Culture hero(es) Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 27-28

General Features

Forces of nature are controlled by or imbued with the supernatural Present (Source)
Hogbin (1978), pp. 45-46

Classes of Tapu

Kinship tapu Present (Source)
Hogbin (1978), pp. 25
Resource management tapu Present (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 333
Social hierarchy tapu Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 82-99
Hogbin (1978), pp. 39

Mana

Mana as a personal quality Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Mana related to social influence or technical skill Absent (Source)
Mana as a spiritual or religious concept Absent (Source)
Blevins (2008)
Blust (2007)
Keesing (1984)
Practice +

General Supernatural Practices

Headhunting Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1970)
Costly sacrifices and offerings Absent (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 330
Hogbin (1970), pp. 53, 58-81
Size of largest ritual social group Larger than the largest political community in the culture (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 380, 381
Hogbin (1970), pp. 158
Political and religious differentiation Considerable overlap between religious and political leaders (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 18
Levinson (1991), pp. 381

Rites

Piercing Present in the culture as a rite or feature of a rite (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 103
Genital cutting Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1970)
Scarification Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1970)
Tattooing Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1970)
Tooth pulling Absent from culture (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 100-168
Social Environment +
Population 1000 (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 380
Population of largest political community 100-999 (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 380
Importance of Matrilateral descent Medium (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 381
Kinship system Iroquois (Source)
Hays (1991D), pp. 381
Polygamy Full polygyny (Source)
Hays (1991D), pp. 381
Marital residence Neolocal - separate from kin (Source)
Hays (1991D), pp. 381

Conflict

Conflict within communities Low (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 17-18
Conflict between communities of the culture Occasional, at least every generation (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 381
Hogbin (1970), pp. 10
Hogbin (1978), pp. 57
Conflict with other cultures Rare or never (Source)
Hogbin (1978), pp. 179
Cultural Isolation +
Contact with other cultures Frequent, through trade, warfare, travel, etc. (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Levinson (1991), pp. 380
Distance to closest landmass inhabited by a different culture (km) 21.4 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea) (2014)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Distance to African or Asian mainland (km) 4139.4 (Source)
Daft Logic Distance Calculator (2014)
Pre-Austronesian population Present: Clear evidence of human occupation prior to Austronesian settlement (Source)
Bellwood (1995), pp. 109
Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Hindu / Buddhist influence on supernatural belief, and culture is unlikely to have had contact with Hindu or Buddhist societies at or prior to to the time focus in question. (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.21
Islamic influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Islamic influence on supernatural belief, and culture is unlikely to have had contact with Islamic societies at or prior to the time focus in question. (Source)
Cribb (2000), pp. Map 2.23
Christian influence on supernatural belief No evidence of Christian influence on supernatural belief, but culture is known to have had (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 380
Subsistence and Economy +

Land-based means of subsistence

Animal husbandry as a source of food Medium (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Hogbin (1935), pp. 310
Agriculture / Horticulture Principal (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 15
Land-based gathering Medium (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 15
Hogbin (1935), pp. 310
Land-based hunting performed by one or more groups Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Hogbin (1935), pp. 310-311
Land-based hunting performed by individuals Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Hogbin (1935), pp. 310-311

Water-based means of subsistence

Fishing and water-based hunting performed by one or more groups Medium (Source)
Hogbin (1935), pp. 311
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Water-based gathering Medium (Source)
Levinson (1991), pp. 380
Hogbin (1935), pp. 311
Fishing and water-based hunting performed by individuals Medium (Source)
Hogbin (1970), pp. 16
Hogbin (1935), pp. 311

Commercial Activity

Trade / wage labour as a source of food Minor (Source)
Hogbin (1935b)
Physical Environment +

Geographical Range of Culture

Number of islands inhabited by culture Two (Source)
Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)

Features of Island with Largest Culture Population

Latitude -3.2 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Longitude 144.1 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea) (2014)
Google Maps (2014)
Island type (island with largest culture population or largest island if unknown) Volcanic high island (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 16
Island Size (km²) 33.3 (Source)
Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea) (2014)
Daft Logic Area Calculator (2014)
Maximum elevation (meters) 610.0 (Source)
Hogbin & Lawrence (1967), pp. 5
Post Contact History(1935-2011)Expand All +
Religious History +

Conversion

Use of force in conversion Low (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 49
Resident missionary involvement in conversion process Present, and from non-Austronesian societies (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 49
Adoption of a world religion Present and predominant (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 18

Syncretic Movements

Syncretic religious movements Absent (Source)
Anderson (1890), pp. 49-52
Secular History +

Demographic and Social Changes

Foreign government systems Present, and of high importance (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 50
Hogbin (1978), pp. 11
Immigration Absent (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 36-53
Language shift Medium (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 53
Foreign education systems High (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 48

Economic Changes

Changes in means of subsistence Low (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 35-36
Exportation of goods to other cultures Present and substantial (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 48
Hogbin (1978), pp. 10

Modern Infrastructure

Vehicles and roads Present and widely used (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 48
Air travel Absent (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 1
Sea port Absent (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 1

Loss of Autonomy

Nature of loss of autonomy Partly voluntary (Source)
Hogbin (1978), pp. 4-6
Loss of political autonoomy Medium (Source)
Hogbin (1978), pp. 4-6, 11
Anderson (2011)
Current Culture(2011-2014)Expand All +
Belief +

Religious Demographics

Unofficial religious syncretism Low (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 18-19
Institutional religious syncretism Medium (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 18-19
Dominant world religion Christianity (Source)
Anderson (2011), pp. 18
External Links
References
Anderson, A. (2011). Landscapes of Relations and Belonging: Body, Place and Politics in Wogeo, Papua New Guinea. New York, NY: Berghahn Books.

Anderson, J. (1890). The Selungs of the Mergui Archipelago. London, England: Trubner & Co.

Bellwood, P. (1995). Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation. P. Bellwood, J.J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (pp 113-114). Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Blevins, J. (2008). Some Comparative Notes on Proto-Oceanic *Mana: Inside and Outside the Austronesian Family. Oceanic Linguistics, 47 (2), 253-274. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ol/summary/v047/47.2.blevins.html

Blust, R. (2007). Proto-Oceanic *Mana Revisited. Oceanic Linguistics, 46(2), 404-423. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20172322

Cribb, R. (2000). Historical atlas of Indonesia. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

Daft Logic Area Calculator. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm.

Daft Logic Distance Calculator. (2014). http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-distance-calculator.htm.

Ethnologue (Map 4 of Papua New Guinea). (2014). Papua New Guinea, Map 4. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/map/PG_04

Google Maps (2014). Retrieved from maps.google.com

Hays, T.E. (1991A). Easter Island. In Hays, T.E. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Hays, T.E. (1991D). "Wogeo". In T.E. Hays (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of World Cultures (Volume II: Oceania) (pp 380-382). New York, NY: G.K. Hall & Co.

Hogbin, H. I. (1935). Culture of Wogeo—Report of field work in New Guinea. Oceania, 5(3), 308-337.

Hogbin, H. I. (1935). Trading expeditions in northern New Guinea. Oceania, 5(4), 375-407.

Hogbin, H. I. (1943). A New Guinea infancy : From conception to weaning in Wogeo. Oceania, 13(4), 285-309.

Hogbin, H.I. (1978). The Leaders and the Led: Social Control in Wogeo, New Guinea. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Hogbin, I. (1970). The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Chicago, IL: Waveland Press.

Hogbin, I., & Lawrence, P. (1967). Studies in New Guinea land tenure. Sydney: Sydney University Press

Keesing, R. M. (1984). Rethinking "mana". Journal of Anthropological Research, 40(1), 137-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629696.

Levinson, D. (Ed.). (1991). Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume 2 Oceania. NY: G. K. Hall & Company